Diversification in Adelomyia hummingbirds follows Andean uplift

Authors

  • JAIME A. CHAVES,

    1. Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, 619 Charles E. Young Dr. South, La Kretz Hall, Suite 300, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496, USA
    2. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496, USA
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  • JASON T. WEIR,

    1. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto, Scarborough 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario MIC 1A4, Canada
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  • THOMAS B. SMITH

    1. Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, 619 Charles E. Young Dr. South, La Kretz Hall, Suite 300, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496, USA
    2. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496, USA
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Jaime A. Chaves, Fax: 702 895 3094; E-mail: jaimechaves76@gmail.com

Abstract

The Andes are known to have influenced speciation patterns in many taxa, yet whether species diversification occurred simultaneously with their uplift or only after uplift was complete remains unknown. We examined both the phylogenetic pattern and dates of branching in Adelomyia hummingbirds in relation to Andean uplift to determine whether diversification coincides with the chronological phases of the uplift or with recent climatic fluctuations after Andean formation. Results suggest that the genus Adelomyia originated in the central Andes in the Miocene and was found to be comprised of six deeply divergent phylogroups dating between 3.5 and 6 Ma. The most basal splits in the tree, corresponding to the most southerly distributed of the six phylogroups, diverged in the late Miocene, whereas the northern phylogroups originated during the early-to-mid-Pliocene, when the northern Andes reached heights sufficient to support Adelomyia populations. Although we provide evidence for a southern origin for the group, the subsequent diversification of the northern phylogroups did not strictly follow the hypothesized south-to-north orogeny of the Andes. Further genetic structure within phylogroups may have resulted from Pleistocene climate fluctuations after the onset of the six lineages during the Mio-Pliocene. We explore the processes that promoted diversification in the Andes and suggest that in at least some groups, divergence was coupled to Andean orogeny.

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