The role of immigration and in-situ radiation in explaining blood parasite assemblages in an island bird clade

Authors

  • JOSSELIN CORNUAULT,

    1. Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), UMR 5174 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) - Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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  • ANAÏS BATAILLARD,

    1. Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), UMR 5174 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) - Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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  • BEN H. WARREN,

    1. UMR C53 PVBMT, Université de La Réunion – CIRAD, 7 chemin de l’IRAT, Ligne Paradis, 97410 Saint Pierre, Réunion, France
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  • AMÉLIE LOOTVOET,

    1. Laboratoire Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution (ESE), UMR 8079 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) – Université Paris-Sud 11, voie de la faculté, 91400 Orsay, France
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  • PASCAL MIRLEAU,

    1. Institut Méditerranéen d’Écologie et de Paléoécologie, UMR-CNRS 6116, UMR-IRD 193, Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille 3, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de St Jérôme, F-13397 Marseille, France
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  • THOMAS DUVAL,

    1. Société Calédonienne d’Ornithologie Nord BP 236 98822 Poindimié, Nouvelle Calédonie, France
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  • BORJA MILÁ,

    1. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Madrid 28006, Spain
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  • CHRISTOPHE THÉBAUD,

    1. Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), UMR 5174 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) - Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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  • PHILIPP HEEB

    1. Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), UMR 5174 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) - Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France
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Josselin Cornuault, Fax: +33(0) 561557327; E-mail: cornuaul@cict.fr

Abstract

Parasite communities on islands are assembled through multiple immigrations and/or in-situ diversification. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to investigate the role of such processes in shaping current patterns of diversity in Leucocytozoon, a group of haemosporidian blood parasites infecting whites eyes (Zosterops) endemic to the Mascarene archipelago (south-western Indian Ocean). We found that this parasite community arose through a combination of multiple immigrations and in-situ diversification, highlighting the importance of both processes in explaining island diversity. Specifically, two highly diverse parasite clades appear to have been present in the Mascarenes for most of their evolutionary history and have diversified within the archipelago, while another lineage apparently immigrated more recently, probably with human-introduced birds. Interestingly, the evolutionary histories of one clade of parasites and Indian Ocean Zosterops seem tightly associated with a significant signal for phylogenetic congruence, suggesting that host–parasite co-divergence may have occurred in this system.

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