Parasite communities on islands are assembled through multiple immigrations and/or in-situ diversification. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to investigate the role of such processes in shaping current patterns of diversity in Leucocytozoon, a group of haemosporidian blood parasites infecting whites eyes (Zosterops) endemic to the Mascarene archipelago (south-western Indian Ocean). We found that this parasite community arose through a combination of multiple immigrations and in-situ diversification, highlighting the importance of both processes in explaining island diversity. Specifically, two highly diverse parasite clades appear to have been present in the Mascarenes for most of their evolutionary history and have diversified within the archipelago, while another lineage apparently immigrated more recently, probably with human-introduced birds. Interestingly, the evolutionary histories of one clade of parasites and Indian Ocean Zosterops seem tightly associated with a significant signal for phylogenetic congruence, suggesting that host–parasite co-divergence may have occurred in this system.