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Identifying insecticide resistance genes in mosquito by combining AFLP genome scans and 454 pyrosequencing

Authors

  • MARGOT PARIS,

    1. Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine (LECA), UMR 5553 CNRS-Université de Grenoble, BP53 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    2. Plant Ecological Genetics, Institute of Integrative Biology, Universitätstrasse 16, ETH CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • LAURENCE DESPRES

    1. Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine (LECA), UMR 5553 CNRS-Université de Grenoble, BP53 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
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Laurence Després, Fax: +33 4 76 51 42 79; E-mail: laurence.despres@ujf-grenoble.fr

Abstract

AFLP-based genome scans are widely used to study the genetics of adaptation and to identify genomic regions potentially under selection. However, this approach usually fails to detect the actual genes or mutations targeted by selection owing to the difficulties of obtaining DNA sequences from AFLP fragments. Here, we combine classical AFLP outlier detection with 454 sequencing of AFLP fragments to obtain sequences from outlier loci. We applied this approach to the study of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) toxins in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A genome scan of Bti-resistant and Bti-susceptible A. aegypti laboratory strains was performed based on 432 AFLP markers. Fourteen outliers were detected using two different population genetic algorithms. Out of these, 11 were successfully sequenced. Three contained transposable elements (TEs) sequences, and the 10 outliers that could be mapped at a unique location in the reference genome were located on different supercontigs. One outlier was in the vicinity of a gene coding for an aminopeptidase potentially involved in Bti toxin-binding. Patterns of sequence variability of this gene showed significant deviation from neutrality in the resistant strain but not in the susceptible strain, even after taking into account the known demographic history of the selected strain. This gene is a promising candidate for future functional analysis.

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