Appendix S1 Sampling information for RWAs in Xinjiang.

Appendix S2 Primer details and indices of genetic variation for the 10 microsatellite loci used in this study.

Appendix S3 Mitochondrial genetic diversity in each population.

Appendix S4 AMOVA for RWAs sampled in 2010 and analysed in three groups: Wuqia, Cele and Pishan, and northern populations.

Appendix S5 Pairwise FST and Exact G test for each site sampled in 2009 and 2010, and AMOVA analysis of nine groups for temporal comparison.

Appendix S6 FCA of Chinese RWAs from northern populations sampled in 2009 and 2010.

Appendix S7 Gene flow patterns of RWAs in far eastern ranges based on long-term estimates of gene flow.

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