Fig. S1 Analysis of the bathymetric ranges of the PSH. It was possible to conclude from the observation of the bathymetrical ranges of two PSH if they were overlapping or not. However, the observed bathymetrical range of a PSH could be only a sampling artifact. To evaluate this hypothesis, a statistical test was performed. Two different PSH, A and B, characterized respectively by their bathymetric ranges RA and RB and numbers of collected specimens NA and NB, and their association in a single PSH C, with RC and NC, are considered. The null hypothesis is that the PSH A and B are only subsamples of the PSH C. NA bathymetrical ranges (RA’) were randomly determined within RC, this operation being repeated 1000 times. The observed range RA is then compared to the distribution of the 1000 RA’. If RA is placed within the 5% of the weakest values of the distribution, the null hypothesis is rejected. The same test is also applied to the PSH B. The results are then interpreted depending on the respective position of the two ranges RA and RB.

Table S2 Genetic structure calculated with the COI and 28S genes for respectively eight and five PSH. Fst values are calculated between each pair of stations for which at least six specimens were available. Into parentheses: number of specimens. An AMOVA was also performed for the PSH 67 between two groups (Philippines and Vanuatu) and four populations in the Vanuatu.

Table S3 List of the 1000 specimens analysed in this study.

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