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Table S1 Probability of deviating from expected Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) conditions for large samples of the Antarctic benthic octopus P.  turqueti.

Table S2 Estimates of genetic differentiation (FST) at microsatellite loci for pairs of large samples of the Antarctic octopus P.  turqueti.

Table S3 Average proportions of membership (Q) of samples of the Antarctic octopus P.  turqueti to one of three or six hypothetical model clusters identified by Structure (see Fig. S2); clusters contributing most to each geographic location are highlighted bold.

Fig. S1 Graphical detection of the most likely number of distinct model clusters (K) in a genetic sample using Structure (Pritchard et  al. 2003) software.

Fig. S2 Probabilities of individual membership to cluster in either (a) a three or (b) six cluster simulation using Structure (Pritchard et  al. 2003) based on microsatellite genotype frequencies of P.  turqueti from the Southern Ocean.

Fig. S3 Variation in the level of genetic differentiation [FST/(1 − FST)] with geographic distance (log km) between pairs of samples of the Antarctic octopus P.  turqueti (= 0.14, = 28, = 0.33, Mantel test).

Fig. S4 Mismatch distributions based on MT-CO1 haplotypes for nine different geographical partitions of the benthic octopus P.  turqueti from locations around Antarctica (for full details see Results and also Table 2 in the main body text).

Fig. S5 Bayesian skyline plots based on MT-CO1 haplotypes for nine different geographical partitions of the benthic octopus P.  turqueti from locations around Antarctica (for full details see Results and Table 2 in the main body text).

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