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Fig. S1 Inferred genetic proportion of individual butterflies to each of seven (K = 7), 4 (K = 4) or 3 (K = 3) assumed populations. Analyses were started with seven populations to reflect the seven sample locations (see Fig. 1). Bayesian analysis suggest that there are three genetic populations: eastern + western North America, Hawaii, and New Zealand (NZ). Individual monarchs are indicated by vertical bars.

Fig. S2 Inferred genetic proportion of individual butterflies to each of three (K = 3) assumed populations. The analysis was based on the nine loci for which each population was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and the two loci for which three populations were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium; for the latter loci, we excluded the data for the single populations that were not in Hardy–Weinberg equlibrium (Western North America for locus 1679; Hawaii for locus 153). Individual monarchs are indicated by vertical bars.

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