Table S1 Priors and rules used to generate data for approximate Bayesian computation analysis.

Table S2 Location and dates of line transect surveys.

Table S3 Test of deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in microsatellite loci of Colias behrii.

Table S4 Regression models of genetic differentiation with predictors for population structure and population connectivity.

Table S5 Linear regression models of genetic diversity with predictors for meadow area, average distance to nearby meadow patches, total neighborhood size of patches, and density.

Fig. S1 Model performance with an increasing number of population clusters (K) in (A) STRUCTURE and (B) TESS. Rate of change in model performance (ΔK) based on the number of population clusters (K) in (C) STRUCTURE and (D) TESS.

Fig. S2 Estimation of individual admixture proportions and cluster membership using K = 2 clusters in the Bayesian program STRUCTURE.

Fig. S3 Bivariate density plots of population size parameters based on the MSVAR analysis of (A) all Colias behrii samples, (B) northern and (C) southern samples.

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