A series of lipoproteins was detected in the membrane fraction of Yersinia enterocolitica W227, a typical strain from serotype O:9. At least two of them, YlpA and YlpB, are encoded by the pYV plasmid. The sequence of ylpA reveals the presence of a typical lipoprotein signal peptide. The mature YlpA protein would be 223 residues long with a calculated molecular weight of 23798 for the proteic moiety of the molecule. YlpA shares 88% identical residues with the TraT protein encoded by plasmid pED208, 80% identity with TraT proteins encoded by plasmids R100 and F, and 77% identity with the TraT protein encoded by the virulence plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. The ylpA gene hybridized with the pYV plasmid of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, suggesting that this gene is conserved among Yersinia spp. The production of YlpA is controlled by virF and only occurs at 37°C in the absence of Ca2+ ions. This co-regulation with the yop genes suggests that ylpA is a virulence determinant. However, mutations in ylpA clearly affect neither the resistance to human serum nor the virulence for intravenously inoculated mice.