TyrR protein of Escherichia coli and its role as repressor and activator

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Summary

The TyrR protein regulates the expression of eight transcriptional units that comprise the TyrR regulon. In all but one case, regulation is by repression, while in two cases activation of expression can occur. Notwithstanding the fact that the TyrR protein contains an ATP-binding domain and a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain which are structurally homologous to domains of similar functions in proteins such as NifA, NtrC, DctD and XylR, it differs from them in a number of respects. It is not a part of a two-protein component system and it lacks the amino-terminal domain that is present on NtrC and DctD. It activates transcription from‘Eσ70’promoters but not from‘Eσ54’promoters. ATP binding seems to be essential for tyrosine-mediated repression but not for activation. In addition, the activity of the TyrR protein is modulated by the binding of one or more of the aromatic amino acids. The consensus sequence for TyrR-binding sites in DNA, referred to as TyrR boxes, is TGTAAAN6TTTACA. Tyrosine-mediated repression occurs at operators containing a pair of adjacent boxes. These have unequal affinities for the TyrR protein. The box that overlaps the RNA polymerase binding site is only bound by TyrR in the presence of both ATP and tyrosine, and binding appears to involve co-operativity between two TyrR protein dimers.

In contrast, activation of expression by TyrR appears to require phenylalanine but not ATP. It occurs as a consequence of the binding of TyrR protein to a single upstream TyrR box, and appears to involve interactions between the bound TyrR molecule and a molecule of RNA polymerase bound to the promoter. The spacing between the box and the promoter is critical for effective activation.

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