Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage r1t

Authors

  • Douwe van Sinderen,

    1. Department of Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.
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    • National Food Biotechnology Centre, University College, Cork, Ireland.

  • Harma Karsens,

    1. Department of Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.
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  • Jan Kok,

    1. Department of Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.
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  • Peter Terpstra,

    1. Bio-medical Technology Centre, Oostersingel 59, 9713 EZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
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  • Marcel H. J. Ruiters,

    1. Bio-medical Technology Centre, Oostersingel 59, 9713 EZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
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  • Gerard Venema,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.
    • For correspondence. Tel. (50) 3632093; Fax (50) 3632348.

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  • Arjen Nauta

    1. Department of Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.
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Summary

The temperate lactococcal bacteriophage r1t was isolated from its lysogenic host and its genome was subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. The linear r1t genome is composed of 33 350 bp and was shown to possess 3′ staggered cohesive ends. Fifty open reading frames (ORFs) were identified which are, probably, organized in a life-cycle-specific manner. Nucleotide sequence comparisons, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and functional analyses enabled the assignment of possible functions to a number of DNA sequences and ORFs. In this way, ORFs specifying regulatory proteins, proteins involved in DNA replication, structural proteins, a holin, a lysin, an integrase, and a dUTPase were putatively identified. One ORF seems to be contained within a self-splicing group I intron. In addition, the bacteriophage att site required for site-specific integration into the host chromosome was determined.

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