Virulence factors secreted by Listeria monocytogenes are known to interfere with host cellular signalling pathways. We investigated whether L. monocytogenes modulates T-cell receptor signalling by examining surface expression of proteins known to be upregulated on activated T cells. In vitro culture of murine splenocytes with L. monocytogenes resulted in a specific and dose-dependent upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL). Induction of FasL expression was also observed for pathogenic Listeria ivanovii but not for non-pathogenic Listeria innocua, indicating involvement of Listeria virulence protein(s). Examination of L. monocytogenes strains deficient in different virulence genes demonstrated that FasL upregulation was dependent on the expression of two secreted proteins: listeriolysin O (LLO) and phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC). Treatment of cells with purified proteins demonstrated that LLO was sufficient for inducing FasL, while PC-PLC synergized with LLO for the induction of FasL expression. FasL-expressing cells induced by L. monocytogenes were capable of killing Fas-expressing target cells. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes infection results in upregulation of FasL on T cells in mice. These results describe a novel function for LLO and PC-PLC and suggest that L. monocytogenes may use these virulence factors to modulate the host immune response.