The transcriptional regulator MvfR is required for full Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence, the function of multiple quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors and the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), including the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Here we investigate the role of MvfR in the QS circuitry and P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. We demonstrate using a combination of biochemical and molecular approaches, including transcription profiling, that MvfR is involved in the regulation of multiple P. aeruginosa QS-controlled genes without altering the expression of lasRI/rhlRI or the production of N-acyl- l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. Dissection of how mvfR is interwoven into the P. aeruginosa QS circuitry reveals that the MvfR system, through the essential contribution of PqsE, positively regulates a subset of genes dependant on both LasR and RhlR. Animal studies show that MvfR contributes to P. aeruginosa virulence by controlling the transcription of genes not under RhlR regulation, and that reduced virulence of a mvfR mutant is caused by the loss of pqsE expression and not only a deficiency in HAQs/PQS production. This study provides novel insights into the unique role of the MvfR system in AHL-mediated QS and further supports its importance in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis.