The molecular basis of selective promoter activation by the σS subunit of RNA polymerase


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Different environmental stimuli cause bacteria to exchange the sigma subunit in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and, thereby, tune their gene expression according to the newly emerging needs. Sigma factors are usually thought to recognize clearly distinguishable promoter DNA determinants, and thereby activate distinct gene sets, known as their regulons. In this review, we illustrate how the principle sigma factor in stationary phase and in stressful conditions in Escherichia coli, σS (RpoS), can specifically target its large regulon in vivo, although it is known to recognize the same core promoter elements in vitro as the housekeeping sigma factor, σ70 (RpoD). Variable combinations of cis-acting promoter features and trans-acting protein factors determine whether a promoter is recognized by RNAP containing σS or σ70, or by both holoenzymes. How these promoter features impose σS selectivity is further discussed. Moreover, additional pathways allow σS to compete more efficiently than σ70 for limiting amounts of core RNAP (E) and thereby enhance EσS formation and effectiveness. Finally, these topics are discussed in the context of sigma factor evolution and the benefits a cell gains from retaining competing and closely related sigma factors with overlapping sets of target genes.