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Summary

The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD+. C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD+ to be synthesized from three compounds – nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss–Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss–Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss–Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD+ via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss–Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD+ sources during disseminated infection.