SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson, L.E., Li, A.D., and Stevens, F.J. (1998) The enolases of ice plant and Arabidopsis contain a potential disulphide and are redox sensitive. Phytochemistry 47: 707713.
  • Berndt, C., Lillig, C.H., and Holmgren, A. (2008) Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins as facilitators of protein folding. Biochim Biophys Acta 1783: 641650.
  • Bérubé, L.R., Farah, S., McClelland, R.A., and Rauth, A.M. (1992) Depletion of intracellular glutathione by 1-methyl-2-nitrosoimidazole. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22: 817820.
  • Blum, H., Beier, H., and Gross, H. (1987) Improved silver staining of plant proteins, RNA and DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Electrophoresis 8: 9399.
  • Boschi-Muller, S., Olry, A., Antoine, M., and Bralant, G. (2005) The enzymology and biochemistry of methionine sulfoxide reductases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1703: 231238.
  • Brown, D.M., Upcroft, J.A., Dodd, H.N., Chen, N., and Upcroft, P. (1999) Alternative 2-keto acid oxidoreductase activities in Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 98: 203214.
  • Camier, S., Ma, E., Leroy, C., Pruvost, A., Toledano, M., and Marsolier-Kergoat, M.C. (2007) Visualization of ribonucleotide reductase catalytic oxidation establishes thioredoxins as its major reductants in yeast. Free Radic Biol Med 42: 10081016.
  • Carlton, J.M., Hirt, R.P., Silva, J.C.L., Delcher, A.L., Schatz, M., Zhao, Q., et al. (2007) Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. Science 315: 207212.
  • Cenas, N., Prast, S., Nivinskas, H., Sarlauskas, J., and Arnér, E.S.J. (2006) Interactions of nitroaromatic compounds with the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase and the relation to induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. J Biol Chem 281: 55935603.
  • Cerkasovová, A., Novák, J., Cerkasov, J., Kulda, J., and Tachezy, J. (1986) Metabolic properties of Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole under anaerobic conditions. Acta Univ Carol Biol 30: 505512.
  • Chapman, A., Cammack, R., Linstead, R., and Lloyd, D. (1985) The generation of metronidazole radicals in hydrogenosomes isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis. J Gen Microbiol 131: 21412144.
  • Clackson, T.E., and Coombs, G.H. (1982) Factors affecting the trichomonacidal activity of metronidazole. J Protozool 29: 636.
  • Clarke, E.D., Wardman, P., and Goulding, K.H. (1980) Anaerobic reduction of nitroimidazoles by reduced flavin mononucleotide and by xanthine oxidase. Biochem Pharmacol 29: 26842687.
  • Clarke, E.D., Goulding, K.H., and Wardman, P. (1982) Nitroimidazoles as anerobic electron acceptors for xanthine oxidase. Biochem Pharmacol 31: 32373242.
  • Coombs, G.H., Westrop, G.D., Suchan, P., Puzova, G., Hirt, R.P., Embley, T.M., et al. (2004) The amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis contains a divergent thioredoxin-linked peroxiredoxin antioxidant system. J Biol Chem 279: 52495256.
  • Coves, J., and Fontecave, M. (1993) Reduction and mobilization by a NAD(P)H:flavin reductase from Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem 211: 635641.
  • Crossley, R.A., Gaskin, D.J.H., Holmes, K., Mulholland, F., Wells, J.M., Kelly, D.J., et al. (2007) Riboflavin biosynthesis is associated with assimilatory ferric reduction and iron acquisition by Campylobacter jejuni. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 78197825.
  • Debets-Ossenkopp, Y.J., Pot, R.G.J., Van Westerloo, D.J., Goddwin, A., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E., Berg, D.E., et al. (1999) Insertion of mini-IS605 and deletion of adjacent sequences in the nitroreductase (rdxA) gene cause metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori NCTC11637. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43: 26572662.
  • Diamond, L.S. (1957) The establishment of various trichomonads of animals and man in axenic cultures. J Parasitol 3: 488490.
  • Ding, H., Harrison, K., and Lu, J. (2005) Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU. J Biol Chem 280: 3043230437.
  • Diniz, C.G., Farias, L.M., Carvalho, M.A.R., Rocha, E.R., and Smith, C.J. (2004) Differential gene expression in a Bacteroides fragilis metronidazole-resistant mutant. J Antimicrob Chemother 54: 100108.
  • Edwards, D.I. (1993) Nitroimidazole drugs – action and resistance mechanisms. I. Mechanisms of action. J Antimicrob Chemother 31: 920.
  • Ehlhardt, W.J., and Goldman, P. (1989) Thiol-mediated incorporation of radiolabel from 1-[14C]-methyl-4-phenyl-5-nitrosoimidazole into DNA. Biochem Pharmacol 38: 11751180.
  • Ehlhardt, W.J., Beaulieu, B.B., and Goldman, P. (1988) Mammalian cell toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of nitrosoimidazoles. Biochem Pharmacol 37: 26032606.
  • Ellis, J.E., Yarlett, N., Cole, D., Humphreys, M.J., and Lloyd, D. (1994) Antioxidant defences in the microaerophilic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis: comparison of metronidazole-resistant and sensitive strains. Microbiology 140: 24892494.
  • Freeman, C.D., Klutman, N.E., and Lamp, K.C. (1997) Metronidazole – a therapeutic review and update. Drugs 54: 679708.
  • Garchow, B.G., Jog, S.P., Mehta, B.D., Monosso, J.M., and Murthy, P.P.N. (2006) Alkaline phytase from Lilium longiflorum: purification and structural characterization. Prot Expr Purif 46: 221232.
  • Goodwin, A., Kersulyte, D., Sisson, G., Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.O.J., Berg, D.E., and Hoffman, P.S. (1998) Metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to null mutations in a gene (rdxA) that encodes an oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase. Mol Microbiol 28: 383393.
  • Hara, S., Motohashi, K., Arisaka, F., Romano, P.G.N., Hosoya-Matsuda, N., Kikuchi, N., et al. (2006) Thioredoxin-h1 reduces and reactivates the oxidized cytosolic malate dehydrogenase dimmer in plants. J Biol Chem 281: 3206532071.
  • Hrdy, I., Mertens, E., and Van Schaftingen, E. (1993) Identification, purification and separation of different isozymes of NADP-specific malic enzyme from Tritrichomonas foetus. Mol Biochem Parasitol 57: 253260.
  • Hrdy, I., Cammack, R., Stopka, P., Kulda, J., and Tachezy, J. (2005) Alternative pathway of metronidazole activation in Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 50335036.
  • Imlay, J.A. (2006) Iron-sulphur and the problem with oxygen. Mol Microbiol 59: 10731082.
  • Ings, R.M.J., McFadzean, J.A., and Ormerod, W.E. (1974) The mode of action of metronidazole in Trichomonas vaginalis and other micro-organisms. Biochem Pharmacol 23: 14211429.
  • Kabickova, H., Kulda, J., Cerkasovova, A., and Peckova, H. (1986) Metronidazole resistant Tritrichomonas foetus: activities of hydrogenosomal enzymes in course of development of anaerobic resistance. Acta Univ Carol Biol 30: 513519.
  • Kedderis, G.L., Argenbright, L.S., and Miwa, G.T. (1988) Mechanism of reductive activation of 5-nitroimidazole by flavoproteins: model studies with dithionite. Arch Biochem Biophys 262: 4048.
  • Kim, J.A., Park, S., Kim, K., Rhee, S.G., and Kang, S.W. (2005) Activity assay of mammalian 2-cys peroxiredoxins using yeast thioredoxin reductase system. Anal Biochem 338: 216223.
  • Kolarich, D., Weber, A., and Turecek, P.L. (2006) Comprehensive glyco-proteomic analysis of human á1 antitrypsin and its charge isoforms. Proteomics 6: 33693380.
  • Kulda, J. (1999) Trichomonads, hydrogenosomes and drug resistance. Int J Parasitol 29: 199212.
  • Kulda, J., Tachezy, J., and Cerkasovová, A. (1993) In vitro induced anaerobic resistance to metronidazole in Trichomonas vaginalis. J Euk Microbiol 40: 262269.
  • Kwon, D.H., Kato, M., El-Zaatari, F.A.K., Osato, M.S., and Graham, D.Y. (2000) Frame-shift mutations in NAD (P) H flavin oxidoreductase encoding gene (frxA) from metronidazole resistant Helicobacter pylori ATCC43504 and its involvement in metronidazole resistance. FEMS Microbiol Lett 188: 197202.
  • Land, K.M., Delgadillo, M.G., and Johnson, P.J. (2002) In vivo expression of ferredoxin in a drug resistant trichomonad increases metronidazole susceptibility. Mol Biochem Parasitol 121: 153157.
  • Land, K.M., Delgadillo-Correa, M.G., Tachezy, J., Vanacova, S., Hsieh, C.L., Sutak, R., and Johnson, P.J. (2004) Targeted gene replacement of a ferredoxin gene in Trichomonas vaginalis does not lead to metronidazole resistance. Mol Microbiol 51: 115122.
  • LaRusso, N.A., Tomasz, M., Kaplan, D., and Müller, M. (1978) Interaction of metronidazole with nucleic acids in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13: 1924.
  • Leitsch, D., Radauer, C., Paschinger, K., Wilson, I.B.H., Breiteneder, H., Scheiner, O., and Duchene, M. (2005) Entamoeba histolytica: analysis of the trophozoite proteome by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Exp Parasitol 110: 191195.
  • Leitsch, D., Kolarich, D., Wilson, I.B.H., Altmann, F., and Duchêne, M. (2007) Nitroimidazole action in Entamoeba histolytica: a central role for thioredoxin reductase. Plos Biol 5: 18201834.
  • Lillig, C.H., Prior, A., Schwenn, J.D., Aslund, F., Ritz, D., Vlamis-Gardikas, A., and Holmgren, A. (1999) New thioredoxins and glutaredoxins as electron donors of 3′-phosphoadenylylsulfate reductase. J Biol Chem 274: 76957698.
  • Lindmark, D.G., and Müller, M. (1973) Hydrogenosome, a cytosolic organelle of the anaerobic flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus, and its role in pyruvate metabolism. J Biol Chem 248: 77247728.
  • Lindmark, D.G., and Müller, M. (1976) Antitrichomonad action, mutagenicity, and reduction of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10: 476482.
  • Lloyd, D., and Pedersen, J.Z. (1985) Metronidazole radical anion generation in vivo. Trichomonas vaginalis: oxygen quenching is enhanced in a drug-resistant strain. J Gen Microbiol 131: 8792.
  • McHugh, J.P., Rodríguez-Quinones, F., Abdul-Tehrani, H., Svistusenko, D.A., Poole, R.K., Cooper, C.E., and Andrews, S.C. (2003) Global iron-dependent gene regulation in Escherichia coli. A new mechanism for iron homeostasis. J Biol Chem 278: 2947829486.
  • Mason, R.P., and Holtzman, J.L. (1975) The role of catalytic superoxide formation in the O2 inhibition of nitroreductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 67: 12671274.
  • Mentel, M., Zimorski, V., Haferkamp, P., Martin, W., and Henze, K. (2008) Protein import into hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis involves both N-terminal and internal targeting signals: a case study of thioredoxin reductases. Eukaryot Cell 7: 17501757.
  • Moreno, S.N.J., and Docampo, R. (1985) Mechanism of toxicity of nitro compounds used in chemotherapy of trichomoniasis. Environ Health Perspect 64: 199208.
  • Moreno, S.N.J., Mason, R.P., Muniz, R.P.A., Cruz, F.S., and Docampo, R. (1983) Generation of free radicals from metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles by Tritrichomonas foetus. J Biol Chem 258: 40514054.
  • Moreno, S.N.J., Mason, R.P., and Docampo, R. (1984) Distinct reduction of nitrofurans and metronidazole to free radical metabolites by Tritrichomonas foetus hydrogenosomal and cytosolic enzymes. J Biol Chem 259: 82528259.
  • Mulcahy, R.T., Gipp, J.J., Ublacker, G.A., Paniucci, R., and McClelland, R.A. (1989) Cytotoxicity and glutathione depletion by 1-methyl-2-nitroimidazole in human cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 38: 16671671.
  • Müller, M., and Gorrell, T.E. (1983) Metabolism and metronidazole uptake in Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with different metronidazole susceptibilities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 24: 667673.
  • Narcisi, E.M., and Secor, W.E. (1996) In vitro effect of tinidazole and furazolidone on metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 11211125.
  • Narikawa, S., Suzuki, T., Yamamoto, M., and Nakamura, M. (1991) Lactate dehydrogenase activity as a cause of metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 11295. J Antimicrob Chemother 28: 4753.
  • Nordlund, P., and Reichard, P. (2006) Ribonucleotide reductases. Annu Rev Biochem 75: 681706.
  • Pervez-Reyes, E., Kalyanaraman, B., and Mason, R.P. (1980) The reductive metabolism of metronidazole and ronidazole by aerobic liver microsomes. Mol Pharmacol 17: 239244.
  • Petrin, D., Delgaty, K., Bhatt, R., and Garber, G. (1998) Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 300317.
  • Puig, S., Askeland, E., and Thiele, D.J. (2005) Coordinated remodelling of cellular metabolism during iron deficiency through targeted mRNA degradation. Cell 120: 99110.
  • Pütz, S., Gelius-Dietrich, G., Piotrowski, M., and Henze, K. (2005) Rubrerythrin and peroxiredoxin: two novel putative peroxidases in hydrogenosomes of the microaerophilic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 142: 212223.
  • Rasoloson, D., Tomková, E., Cammack, R., Kulda, J., and Tachezy, J. (2001) Metronidazole-resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis display increased susceptibility to oxygen. Parasitology 123: 4556.
  • Rasoloson, D., Vanacova, S., Tomkova, E., Razga, J., Hrdy, I., Tachezy, J., and Kulda, J. (2002) Mechanisms of in vitro development of resistance to metronidazole in Trichomonas vaginalis. Microbiology 48: 24672477.
  • Schmid, A., and Schmid, H. (1999) Pharmaco-toxological mode of action of antimicrobial 5-nitroimidazole derivatives. J Vet Med A 46: 517522.
  • Sindar, P., Britz, M.L., and Wilkinson, R.G. (1982) Isolation and properties of metronidazole-resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens. J Med Microbiol 15: 503509.
  • Smith, M.A., and Edwards, D.I. (1995) Redox potential and oxygen concentration as factors in the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to nitroheterocyclic drugs. J Antimicrob Chemother 35: 751764.
  • Sutak, R., Tachezy, J., Kulda, J., and Hrdý, I. (2004) Pyruvate decarboxylase, the target for omeprazole in metronidazole-resistant and iron-restricted Tritrichomonas foetus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 21852189.
  • Townson, S.M., Upcroft, J.A., and Upcroft, P. (1996) Characterisation and purification of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Giardia duodenalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 79: 183189.
  • Upcroft, P., and Upcroft, J.A. (2001) Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa. Clin Microbio Rev 14: 150164.
  • Vanacova, S., Rasoloson, D., Razga, J., Hrdy, I., Kulda, J., and Tachezy, J. (2001) Iron-induced changes in pyruvate metabolism of Tritrichomonas foetus and involvement of iron in expression of hydrogenosomal proteins. Microbiology 147: 5362.
  • Vanacova, S., Liston, D.R., Tachezy, J., and Johnson, P.J. (2003) Molecular biology of the amitochondriate parasites, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Int J Parasitol 33: 235255.
  • Vidakovic, M., Crossnoe, C.R., Neidre, C., Kim, K., Krause, K., and Germanas, J. (2003) Reactivity of reduced [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxins parallels host susceptibility to nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 302308.
  • Viodé, C., Bettache, N., Cenas, N., Krauth-Siegel, R.L., Chauviére, G., Bakalara, N., and Périe, J. (1999) Enzymatic reduction studies of nitroheterocycles. Biochem Pharmacol 57: 549557.
  • Wassman, C., Hellberg, A., Tannich, E., and Bruchhaus, I. (1999) Metronidazole resistance in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is associated with increased expression of iron-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin and decreased expression of ferredoxin 1 and flavin reductase. J Biol Chem 274: 2605126056.
  • Wendel, K.A., and Workowski, K.A. (2007) Trichomoniasis: challenges to appropriate management. Clin Infect Dis 44 (Suppl. 3): 123129.
  • West, S.B., Wislocki, P.G., Fiorentini, K.M., Alvaro, R., Wolf, F.J., and Lu, A.Y.H. (1982) Drug residue formation from ronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole. I. Characterization of in vitro protein alkylation. Chem Biol Interact 41: 265279.
  • Willson, R.L., and Searle, A.J.F. (1975) Metronidazole (Flagyl): iron catalysed reaction with sulphydryl groups and tumor radiosensitization. Nature 225: 498500.
  • Wislocki, P.G., Bagan, E.S., Vandenheuvel, W.J.A., Walker, R.A., Alvaro, R.F., Arison, B.H., et al. (1984) Drug residue formation from ronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole. V. Cysteine adducts formed upon reduction of ronidazole by dithionite or rat liver enzymes in the presence of cysteine. Chem Biol Interact 49: 1325.
  • Wong, J.H., Balmer, Y., Cai, N., Tanaka, C.K., Vensel, W.H., Hurkman, W.J., and Buchanan, B.B. (2003) Unraveling thioredoxin-linked metabolic processes of cereal starchy endosperm using proteomics. FEBS Lett 547: 151156.
  • Woodmansee, A.N., and Imlay, J.A. (2002) Reduced flavins promote oxidative DNA damage in non-respiring Escherichia coli by delivering electrons to intracellular iron. J Biol Chem 277: 3405534066.
  • Worst, D.J., Gerrits, M.M., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E., and Kusters, J.G. (1998) Helicobacter pylori ribBA-mediated riboflavin production is involved in iron acquisition. J Bacteriol 180: 14731479.
  • Wu, G., Fiser, A., Ter Kuile, B., Sali, A., and Müller, M. (1999) Convergent evolution of Trichomonas vaginalis lactate dehydrogenase from malate dehydrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 62856290.
  • Yarlett, N., Gorell, T.E., Marczak, R., and Müller, M. (1985) Reduction of nitroimidazole derivatives by hydrogenosomal extracts of Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 14: 2940.
  • Yarlett, N., Yarlet, N.C., and Lloyd, D. (1986a) Ferredoxin-dependent reduction of nitroimidazole derivatives in drug-resistant and susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. Biochem Pharmacol 35: 17031708.
  • Yarlett, N., Yarlett, N.C., and Lloyd, D. (1986b) Metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis have lowered oxygen affinities. Mol Biochem Parasitol 19: 111116.
  • Yarlett, N., Rowlands, C.C., Evans, J.C., Yarlett, N.C., and Lloyd, D. (1987) Nitroimidazole and oxygen derived radicals detected by electron spin resonance in hydrogenosomal and cytosolic fractions from Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 24: 255261.
  • Zahoor, A., Knight, R.C., Whitty, P., and Edwards, D.I. (1986) Satranidazole: mechanism of action on DNA and structure-activity correlations. J Antimicrob Chemother 18: 1725.
  • Zahoor, A., Lafleur, M.V.M., Knight, R.C., Loman, H., and Edwards, D.I. (1987) DNA damage induced by reduced nitroimidazole drugs. Biochem Pharmacol 36: 32993304.