Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/authorresources/onlineopen.html
Intracellular localization of membrane-bound ATPases in the compartmentalized anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’
Article first published online: 9 JUN 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 77, Issue 3, pages 701–715, August 2010
How to Cite
Van Niftrik, L., Van Helden, M., Kirchen, S., Van Donselaar, E. G., Harhangi, H. R., Webb, R. I., Fuerst, J. A., Op den Camp, H. J. M., Jetten, M. S. M. and Strous, M. (2010), Intracellular localization of membrane-bound ATPases in the compartmentalized anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’. Molecular Microbiology, 77: 701–715. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07242.x
- Issue published online: 18 JUL 2010
- Article first published online: 9 JUN 2010
- Accepted 22 May, 2010.
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are divided into three compartments by bilayer membranes (from out- to inside): paryphoplasm, riboplasm and anammoxosome. It is proposed that the anammox reaction is performed by proteins located in the anammoxosome and on its membrane giving rise to a proton-motive-force and subsequent ATP synthesis by membrane-bound ATPases. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the location of membrane-bound ATPases in the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’. Four ATPase gene clusters were identified in the K. stuttgartiensis genome: one typical F-ATPase, two atypical F-ATPases and a prokaryotic V-ATPase. K. stuttgartiensis transcriptomic and proteomic analysis and immunoblotting using antisera directed at catalytic subunits of the ATPase gene clusters indicated that only the typical F-ATPase gene cluster most likely encoded a functional ATPase under these cultivation conditions. Immunogold localization showed that the typical F-ATPase was predominantly located on both the outermost and anammoxosome membrane and to a lesser extent on the middle membrane. This is consistent with the anammox physiology model, and confirms the status of the outermost cell membrane as cytoplasmic membrane. The occurrence of ATPase in the anammoxosome membrane suggests that anammox bacteria have evolved a prokaryotic organelle; a membrane-bounded compartment with a specific cellular function: energy metabolism.