Efflux of a range of antimalarial drugs and ‘chloroquine resistance reversers’ from the digestive vacuole in malaria parasites with mutant PfCRT


E-mail kiaran.kirk@anu.edu.au; Tel. (+61) 2 6125 2284; Fax (+61) 2 6125 0313.


Chloroquine-resistant malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) show an increased leak of H+ ions from their internal digestive vacuole in the presence of chloroquine. This phenomenon has been attributed to the transport of chloroquine, together with H+, out of the digestive vacuole (and hence away from its site of action) via a mutant form of the parasite's chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT). Here, using transfectant parasite lines, we show that a range of other antimalarial drugs, as well as various ‘chloroquine resistance reversers’ induce an increased leak of H+ from the digestive vacuole of parasites expressing mutant PfCRT, consistent with these compounds being substrates for mutant forms, but not the wild-type form, of PfCRT. For some compounds there were significant differences observed between parasites having the African/Asian Dd2 form of PfCRT and those with the South American 7G8 form of PfCRT, consistent with there being differences in the transport properties of the two mutant proteins. The finding that chloroquine resistance reversers are substrates for mutant PfCRT has implications for the mechanism of action of this class of compound.