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Summary

In monoderm (single-membrane) Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of secreted proteins are first translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the inner wall zone. For a subset of these proteins, final destination is within the cell envelope as either membrane-anchored or cell wall-anchored proteins, whereas another subset of proteins is destined to be transported across the cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Although the cell wall is a porous structure, there is evidence that, for some proteins, transport is a regulated process. This review aims at describing what is known about the mechanisms that regulate the transport of proteins across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria.