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Ethnic enclaves and immigrant earnings growth

Authors


  • This project is part of the research program of the Family and Labour Studies Division, Statistics Canada. I would like to thank Chris Worswick, Jennifer Hunt, Abdurrahman Aydemir, Charles Beach, Miles Corak, David Gray, Gilles Grenier, Ted McDonald, Garnett Picot, Saul Schwartz, Mikal Skuterud, Frances Woolley, and seminar participants at Statistics Canada and the 2003 Canadian Economics Association meetings for their comments. In addition, the two anonymous referees made invaluable suggestions. I would also like to thank Miles Corak and the Family and Labour Studies Division of Statistics Canada for data access and financial support under the Tom Symons Research Fellowship Program. The views presented in this paper belong to the author and do not represent the views of Statistics Canada. The usual disclaimers apply. Email: warmanc@econ.queensu.ca

Abstract

Abstract.  The impact of living in an ethnic enclave on earnings growth of immigrants in Canada is examined using the 1981–2001 Censuses. Consistent with U.S. findings, enclaves are found to have a negative impact on the earnings growth of male immigrants. A negative impact is also found for female immigrants. Living in an enclave was found to be particularly harmful for individuals immigrating as adults, especially for females, but did not affect immigrants who arrived at a young age. Enclaves had a more negative impact on high-skilled male immigrants, especially if they had received the bulk of their education outside Canada. Enclaves were also found to hinder language skills.

Abstract

L'impact du fait de vivre dans une enclave ethnique sur la croissance des gains des immigrants au Canada est analyséà l'aide des données de recensements de 1981 à 2001. En concordance avec les résultats des études américaines, on découvre que les enclaves ont un effet négatif sur la croissance des gains des hommes immigrants. Il y a aussi un impact négatif sur la croissance des gains des femmes immigrantes. Vivre dans une enclave est particulièrement dommageable pour les personnes qui immigrent au stade adulte, et ce particulièrement pour les femmes. Les effets négatifs ne se font pas sentir sur les immigrants qui arrivent en bas âge. Les enclaves ont un effet davantage négatif pour les hommes immigrants hautement qualifiés, en particulier s'ils ont reçu le gros de leur éducation hors du Canada. On montre que de vivre en enclaves retarde le développement d'habiletés langagières.

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