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Keywords:

  • hydrodynamics;
  • methods: numerical;
  • ISM: planetary nebulae: individual K 3 − 35;
  • ISM: jets and outflows;
  • radiation mechanisms: thermal

ABSTRACT

The bipolar morphology of the planetary nebula (PN) K 3 − 35 observed in radio-continuum images was modelled with 3D hydrodynamic simulations with the adaptive grid code yguazú-a. We find that the observed morphology of this PN can be reproduced considering a precessing jet evolving in a dense AGB circumstellar medium, given by a mass-loss rate inline image and a terminal velocity vw= 10 km s−1. Synthetic thermal radio-continuum maps were generated from numerical results for several frequencies. Comparing the maps and the total fluxes obtained from the simulations with the observational results, we find that a model of precessing dense jets, where each jet injects material into the surrounding CSM at a rate inline image (equivalent to a density of 8 × 104 cm−3), a velocity of 1500 km s−1, a precession period of 100 yr and a semi-aperture precession angle of 20° agrees well with the observations.