• accretion, accretion discs;
  • protoplanetary discs;
  • stars: magnetic field


Recent observations have shown that in many exoplanetary systems the spin axis of the parent star is misaligned with the planet’s orbital axis. These have been used to argue against the scenario that short-period planets migrated to their present-day locations due to tidal interactions with their natal discs. However, this interpretation is based on the assumption that the spins of young stars are parallel to the rotation axes of protostellar discs around them. We show that the interaction between a magnetic star and its circumstellar disc can (although not always) have the effect of pushing the stellar spin axis away from the disc angular momentum axis towards the perpendicular state and even the retrograde state. Planets formed in the disc may therefore have their orbital axes misaligned with the stellar spin axis, even before any additional planet–planet scatterings or Kozai interactions take place. In general, magnetosphere–disc interactions lead to a broad distribution of the spin–orbit angles, with some systems aligned and other systems misaligned.