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Keywords:

  • methods: numerical;
  • galaxies: haloes;
  • cosmology: theory;
  • dark matter

ABSTRACT

The detection of extremely massive clusters at z > 1 such as SPT-CL J0546−5345, SPT-CL J2106−5844 and XMMU J2235.3−2557 has been considered by some authors as a challenge to the standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology. In fact, assuming Gaussian initial conditions, the theoretical expectation of detecting such objects is as low as ≤1 per cent. In this paper we discuss the probability of the existence of such objects in the light of the vector dark energy paradigm, showing by means of a series of N-body simulations that chances of detection are substantially enhanced in this non-standard framework.