• black hole physics;
  • shock waves;
  • ISM: jets and outflows


The spectral properties of black hole candidates and outflow rates depend crucially on the models of accretion flow, and thus they are interconnected. In a model of transonic flow, the centrifugal barrier forms a shock wave in the accretion disc at a few tens of Schwarzschild radii. The post-shock region (i.e. the region between the shock and the innermost critical point) can act as a Compton cloud as well a reservoir of outgoing jets/outflows. In order to compute the parameter space in which the outflow can form, we use a suitable Mach number relation that can be satisfied at the shock derived in our earlier work in the presence of dissipation and outflows. Assuming three models of accretion flow (i.e. models of vertical equilibrium, conical wedge shape and constant height), we examine the parameter space of the specific energy and the specific angular momentum for dissipative shock with mass loss. In the first two models, we find that the parameter space is reduced as the cooling rate is increased. However, in the case of the constant height model, the parameter space initially increases with the cooling process, but starts to decrease with a further increase in cooling. One common property in all three accretion flow models is that, above a critical amount of cooling, the parameter space disappears completely. This indicates that the spectrally soft states might not have a significant amount of outflows from the accretion disc.