Intensity and polarization of the atmospheric emission at millimetric wavelengths at Dome Concordia

Authors

  • E. S. Battistelli,

    Corresponding author
    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
      E-mail: elia.battistelli@roma1.infn.it
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  • G. Amico,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • A. Baù,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
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  • L. Bergé,

    1. Centre de Spectroscopie Nucléaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bât 108, 91405, Orsay Campus, France
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  • É. Bréelle,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • R. Charlassier,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • S. Collin,

    1. Centre de Spectroscopie Nucléaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bât 108, 91405, Orsay Campus, France
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  • A. Cruciani,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • P. de Bernardis,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • C. Dufour,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • L. Dumoulin,

    1. Centre de Spectroscopie Nucléaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bât 108, 91405, Orsay Campus, France
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  • M. Gervasi,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
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  • M. Giard,

    1. Centre d’Étude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/Université de Toulouse, 9 Avenue du colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028, Toulouse Cedex 04, France
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  • C. Giordano,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
    2. Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122, Trento, Italy
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  • Y. Giraud-Héraud,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • L. Guglielmi,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • J.-C. Hamilton,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • J. Landé,

    1. Centre d’Étude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/Université de Toulouse, 9 Avenue du colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028, Toulouse Cedex 04, France
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  • B. Maffei,

    1. JBCA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL
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  • M. Maiello,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
    2. Università degli Studi di Siena, Via Banchi di Sotto 55, 53100, Siena, Italy
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  • S. Marnieros,

    1. Centre de Spectroscopie Nucléaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bât 108, 91405, Orsay Campus, France
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  • S. Masi,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • A. Passerini,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
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  • F. Piacentini,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • M. Piat,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • L. Piccirillo,

    1. JBCA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL
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  •  G. Pisano,

    1. JBCA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL
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  •  G. Polenta,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
    2. ASI Science Data Centre, c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, 00044, Frascati, Italy
    3. INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
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  • C. Rosset,

    1. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • M. Salatino,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • A. Schillaci,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
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  • R. Sordini,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica, ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
    2. Dipartimento di Scienze Applicate, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Parthenope’, Centro Direzionale di Napoli, Isola C4, 80143, Naples, Italy
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  • S. Spinelli,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
    2. Media Lario Technologies S.r.l., Località  Pascolo, 23842, Bosisio Parini (LC), Italy
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  • A. Tartari,

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
    2. APC, Université Paris, Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris, France
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  • M. Zannoni

    1. Dipartimento di Fisica ‘G. Occhialini’, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126, Milan, Italy
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E-mail: elia.battistelli@roma1.infn.it

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric emission is a dominant source of disturbance in ground-based astronomy at millimetric wavelengths. The Antarctic plateau is recognized as an ideal site for millimetric and submillimetric observations, and the French/Italian base of Dome Concordia (Dome C) is among the best sites on Earth for these observations. In this paper, we present measurements at Dome C of the atmospheric emission in intensity and polarization at a 2-mm wavelength. This is one of the best observational frequencies for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations when considering cosmic signal intensity, atmospheric transmission, detector sensitivity and foreground removal. Using the B-mode radiation interferometer (BRAIN)-pathfinder experiment, we have performed measurements of the atmospheric emission at 150 GHz. Careful characterization of the airmass synchronous emission has been performed, acquiring more than 380 elevation scans (i.e. ‘skydip’) during the third BRAIN-pathfinder summer campaign in 2009 December/2010 January. The extremely high transparency of the Antarctic atmosphere over Dome C is proven by the very low measured optical depth, 〈τI〉= 0.050 ± 0.003 ± 0.011, where the first error is statistical and the second is the systematic error. Mid-term stability, over the summer campaign, of the atmosphere emission has also been studied. Adapting the radiative transfer atmosphere emission model am to the particular conditions found at Dome C, we also infer the level of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content of the atmosphere, which is notoriously the main source of disturbance in millimetric astronomy (inline image mm). Upper limits on the airmass correlated polarized signal are also placed for the first time. The degree of circular polarization of atmospheric emission is found to be lower than 0.2 per cent [95 per cent confidence level (CL)], while the degree of linear polarization is found to be lower than 0.1 per cent (95 per cent CL). These limits include signal-correlated instrumental spurious polarization.

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