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Stirring N-body systems: universality of end states

Authors

  • Jeremy A. Barber,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews
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  • Hongsheng Zhao,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews
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  • Xufen Wu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Max-Planck-Institut fur Extrasterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching, Germany
    • Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews
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  • Steen H. Hansen

    Corresponding author
    1. Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    • Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews
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E-mail: jab22@st-andrews.ac.uk (JAB); hz4@st-andrews.ac.uk (HZ); xwu@mpe.mpg.de (XW); hansen@dark-cosmology.dk (SHH)

ABSTRACT

We study the evolution of the phase space of collisionless N-body systems under repeated stirrings or perturbations. We find convergence towards a limited solution group, in accordance with Hansen, Juncher & Sparre, that is independent of the initial system and environmental conditions, paying particular attention to the assumed gravitational paradigm (Newtonian and Modified Newtonian Dynamics). We examine the effects of changes to the perturbation scheme and in doing so identify a large group of perturbations featuring radial orbit instability which always lead to convergence. The attractor is thus found to be a robust and reproducible effect under a variety of circumstances.

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