Abstract The aim of this study is to review current understanding of the molecular and morphological pathology of the enteric neuropathies affecting motor function of the human gastrointestinal tract and to evaluate the described pathological entities in the literature to assess whether a new nosology may be proposed. The authors used PUBMED and MEDLINE searches to explore the literature pertinent to the molecular events and pathology of gastrointestinal motility disorders including achalasia, gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, colonic inertia and megacolon in order to characterize the disorders attributable to enteric gut neuropathies. This scholarly review has shown that the pathological features are not readily associated with clinical features, making it difficult for a patient to be classified into any specific category. Individual patients may manifest more than one of the morphological and molecular abnormalities that include: aganglionosis, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and apoptosis, neural degeneration, intestinal neuronal dysplasia, neuronal hyperplasia and ganglioneuromas, mitochondrial dysfunction (syndromic and non-syndromic), inflammatory neuropathies (caused by cellular or humoral immune mechanisms), neurotransmitter diseases and interstitial cell pathology. The pathology of enteric neuropathies requires further study before an effective nosology can be proposed. Carefully studied individual cases and small series provide the basic framework for standardizing the collection and histological evaluation of tissue obtained from such patients. Combined clinical and histopathological studies may facilitate the translation of basic science to the clinical management of patients with enteric neuropathies.