SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Tramonte SM, Brand MB, Mulrow CD, Amato MG, O’Keefe ME, Ramirez G. The treatment of chronic constipation in adults. A systematic review. J Gen Intern Med 1997; 12: 1524.
  • 2
    Petticrew M, Rodgers M, Booth A. Effectiveness of laxatives in adults. Qual Health Care 2001; 10: 26873.
  • 3
    Ramkumar D, Rao SS. Efficacy and safety of traditional medical therapies for chronic constipation: systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 93671.
    Direct Link:
  • 4
    Lembo A, Camilleri M. Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 13608.
  • 5
    Müller-Lissner SA, Kamm MA, Scarpignato C, Wald A. Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 23242.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Jones MP, Talley NJ, Nuyts G, Dubois D. Lack of objective efficacy of laxatives in chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 222230.
  • 7
    Cheskin LJ, Kamal N, Crowell MD, Schuster MM, Whitehead WE. Mechanisms of constipation in older persons and effects of fiber compared with placebo. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 6669.
  • 8
    Ashraf W, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. Effects of psyllium therapy on stool characteristics, colon transit and anorectal function in chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9: 63947.
  • 9
    Fenn GC, Wilkinson PD, Lee CE, Akbar FA. A general practice study of the efficacy of Regulan in functional constipation. Br J Clin Pract 1986; 40: 1927.
  • 10
    Dettmar PW, Sykes J. A multi-centre, general practice comparison of ispaghula husk with lactulose and other laxatives in the treatment of simple constipation. Curr Med Res Opin 1998; 14: 22733.
  • 11
    Rouse M, Chapman N, Mahapatra M, Grillage M, Atkinson SN, Prescott P. An open, randomised, parallel group study of lactulose versus ispaghula in the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. Br J Clin Pract 1991; 45: 2830.
  • 12
    Badiali D, Corazziari E, Habib FI et al. Effect of wheat bran in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. A doubleblind controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 34956.
  • 13
    Graham DY, Moser SE, Estes K. The effect of bran on bowel function in constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 1982; 77: 599603.
  • 14
    Anderson AS, Whichelow MJ. Constipation during pregnancy: dietary fibre intake and the effect of fibre supplementation. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 1985; 39: 2027.
  • 15
    Hamilton JW, Wagner J, Burdick BB, Bass P. Clinical evaluation of methylcellulose as a bulk laxative. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33: 9938.
  • 16
    Mamtani R, Cimino JA, Kugel R, Cooperman JM. A calcium salt of an insoluble synthetic bulking laxative in elderly bedridden nursing home residents. J Am Coll Nutr 1989; 8: 5546.
  • 17
    Hyland CM, Foran JD. Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate as a laxative in the elderly. Practitioner 1968; 200: 6989.
  • 18
    Castle SC, Cantrell M, Israel DS, Samuelson MJ. Constipation prevention: empiric use of stool softeners questioned. Geriatrics 1991; 46: 846.
  • 19
    McRorie JW, Daggy BP, Morel JG, Diersing PS, Miner PB, Robinson M. Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 4917.
  • 20
    Fain AM, Susat R, Herring M, Dorton K. Treatment of constipation in geriatric and chronically ill patients: a comparison. South Med J 1978; 71: 67780.
  • 21
    Joo JS, Ehrenpreis ED, Gonzalez L et al. Alterations in colonic anatomy induced by chronic stimulant laxatives: the cathartic colon revisited. J Clin Gastroenterol 1998; 26: 2836.
  • 22
    Xing JH, Soffer E. Adverse effects of laxatives. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 12019.
  • 23
    Preziosi G, Emmanuel AV. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 3: 417423.
  • 24
    MacLennan WJ, Pooler A. A comparison of sodium picosulphate (“Laxoberal”) with standardised senna (“Senokot”) in geriatric patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1974; 2: 6417.
  • 25
    McCallum G, Ballinger BR, Presly AS. A trial of bran and bran biscuits for constipation in mentally handicapped and psychogeriatric patients. J Hum Nutr 1978; 32: 36972.
  • 26
    Rider JA. Treatment of acute and chronic constipation with bisoxatin acetate and bisacodyl. Double-blind crossover study. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1971; 13: 38692.
  • 27
    Szarka LA, Pemberton JH. Treatment of megacolon and megarectum. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2006; 9: 34350.
  • 28
    Bass P, Dennis S. The laxative effects of lactulose in normal and constipated subjects. J Clin Gastroenterol 1981; 3(Suppl. 1): 2328.
  • 29
    Sanders JF. Lactulose syrup assessed in a double-blind study of elderly constipated patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1978; 26: 2369.
  • 30
    Wesselius-De Casparis A, Braadbaart S, Bergh-Bohlken GE, Mimica M. Treatment of chronic constipation with lactulose syrup: results of a double-blind study. Gut 1968; 9: 8486.
  • 31
    Andorsky RI, Goldner F. Colonic lavage solution (polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution) as a treatment for chronic constipation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85: 2615.
  • 32
    Corazziari E, Badiali D, Habib FI et al. Small volume isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41: 163642.
  • 33
    Corazziari E, Badiali D, Bazzocchi G et al. Long term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low daily doses of isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in the treatment of functional chronic constipation. Gut 2000; 46: 5226.
  • 34
    Di Palma JA, De Ridder PH, Orlando RC, Kolts BE, Cleveland MB. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of a new polyethylene glycol laxative. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 44650.
    Direct Link:
  • 35
    Cleveland MV, Flavin DP, Ruben RA, Epstein RM, Clark GE. New polyethylene glycol laxative for treatment of constipation in adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. South Med J 2001; 94: 47881.
  • 36
    Freedman MD, Schwartz HJ, Roby R, Fleisher S. Tolerance and efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution versus lactulose in relieving opiate induced constipation: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 37: 9047.
  • 37
    Attar A, Lémann M, Ferguson A et al. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation. Gut 1999; 44: 22630.
  • 38
    Rao SS, Seaton K, Miller MJ et al. Psychological profiles and quality of life differ between patients with dyssynergia and those with slow transit constipation. J Psychosom Res 2007; 63: 4419.
  • 39
    Ashraf W, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. An examination of the reliability of reported stool frequency in the diagnosis of idiopathic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 2632.
  • 40
    Pare P, Ferrazzi S, Thompson WG, Irvine EJ, Rance L. An epidemiological survey of constipation in Canada: definitions, rates, demographics, and predictors of health care seeking. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 31307.
    Direct Link:
  • 41
    Stewart WF, Liberman JN, Sandler RS et al. Epidemiology of constipation (EPOC) study in the United States: relation of clinical subtypes to sociodemographic features. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 353040.
    Direct Link:
  • 42
    Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 148091.
  • 43
    US Department of Health and Human Services FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Department of Health and Human Services FDA Center of Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Department of Health and Human Services FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Guidance for industry: patient-reported outcome measures: use in medical product development to support labeling claims: draft guidance. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2006; 4: 79.
  • 44
    Rao SS, Mudipalli RS, Stessman M, Zimmerman B. Investigation of the utility of colorectal function tests and Rome II criteria in dyssynergic defecation (Anismus). Neurogastroenterol Motil 2004; 16: 58996.
  • 45
    Bharucha AE, Fletcher JG. Recent advances in assessing anorectal structure and functions. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 106974.
  • 46
    Di Palma JA, Cleveland MV, McGowan J, Herrera JL. A randomized, multicenter comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and tegaserod in treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 196471.
    Direct Link:
  • 47
    Johanson JF, Ueno R. Lubiprostone, a locally acting chloride channel activator, in adult patients with chronic constipation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, doseranging study to evaluate efficacy and safety. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 135161.
  • 48
    Johanson JF, Morton D, Geenen J, Ueno R. Multicenter, 4-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of lubiprostone, a locally-acting type-2 chloride channel activator, in patients with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 1707.
    Direct Link:
  • 49
    Johnston JM, Kurtz CB, Drossman DA et al. Pilot study on the effect of linaclotide in patients with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 12532.
  • 50
    Frank L, Kleinman L, Farup C, Taylor L, Miner P Jr. Psychometric validation of a constipation symptom assessment questionnaire. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999; 34: 8707.
  • 51
    Slappendel R, Simpson K, Dubois D, Keininger DL. Validation of the PAC-SYM questionnaire for opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic low back pain. Eur J Pain 2006; 10: 20917.
  • 52
    Marquis P, De La Loge C, Dubois D, McDermott A, Chassany O. Development and validation of the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life questionnaire. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005; 40: 54051.
  • 53
    Thompson CA. Novartis suspends tegaserod sales at FDA’s request. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64: 1020.
  • 54
    Falk PG, Hooper LV, Mittvedt T, Gordon JI. Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: what we know and need to know from gnotobiology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998; 62: 115770.
  • 55
    Guarner F, Malagelada JR. Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet 2003; 361: 5129.
  • 56
    Shanahan F. The host-microbe interface within the gut. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 16: 91531.
  • 57
    Zoppi G, Cinquetti M, Luciano A, Benini A, Muner A, Bertazzoni Minelli E. The intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation. Acta Paediatr 1998; 87: 83641.
  • 58
    Khalif IL, Konovitch EA, Maximova ID, Quigley EMM. Alterations in the colonic flora and intestinal permeability and evidence of immune activation in chronic constipation. Dig Liver Dis 2005; 37: 83849.
  • 59
    O’Hara AM, Shanahan F. Gut microbiota: mining for therapeutic potential. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 27484.
  • 60
    Isolauri E, Salminen S, Ouwehand AC. Microbial-gut interactions in health and disease. Probiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 18: 299313.
  • 61
    Shanahan F. Probiotics: a perspective on problems and pitfalls. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003; 38(Suppl.): 3436.
  • 62
    Roberfroid M. Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr 2007; 137(3 Suppl. 2): 830S7S.
  • 63
    Ait-Belgnaoui A, Han W, Lamine F et al. Lactobacillus farciminis treatment suppresses stress induced visceral hypersensitivity: a possible action through interaction with epithelial cell cytoskeleton contraction. Gut 2006; 55: 10904.
  • 64
    Quigley EM, Flourie B. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome: a rationale for their use and an assessment of the evidence to date. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007; 19: 16672.
  • 65
    Moayyedi P, Ford AC, Talley NJ et al. The efficacy of probiotics in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. Gut 2008; Epub ahead of print.
  • 66
    Bouvier M, Meance S, Bouley C, Berta JL, Grimaud JC. Effects of consumption of a milk fermented by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis DN 173 010 on colonic transit times in healthy humans. Biosci Microflora 2001; 20: 438.
  • 67
    Meance S, Cayuela C, Turchet P, Raimondi A, Lucas C, Antoine JM. A fermented milk with a Bifidobacterium probiotic strain DN-173 010 shortened oro-fecal gut transit time in elderly. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2001; 13: 21722.
  • 68
    Agrawal A, Houghton LA, Morris J et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173-010 on abdominal distension and gastrointestinal transit in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 29: 104114. Epub ahead of print.
  • 69
    Lesniewska V, Rowland I, Laerke HN, Grant G, Naughton PJ. Relationship between dietary-induced changes in intestinal commensal microflora and duodenojejunal myoelectric activity monitored by radiotelemetry in the rat in vivo. Exp Physiol 2006; 91: 22937.
  • 70
    Bouhnik Y, Neut C, Raskine L et al. Prospective, randomized, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of lactulose and polyethylene glycol-4000 on colonic flora in chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 88999.
  • 71
    Koebnick C, Wagner I, Leitzmann P, Stern U, Zunft HJ. Probiotic beverage containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation. Can J Gastroenterol 2003; 17: 6559.
  • 72
    Yang YX, He M, Hu G et al. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 623743.
  • 73
    Banaszkiewicz A, Szajewska H. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus GG as an adjunct to lactulose for the treatment of constipation in children: a double-blind, placebocontrolled randomized trial. J Pediatr 2005; 146: 3649.
  • 74
    Amenta M, Cascio MT, Di Fiore P, Venturini I. Diet and chronic constipation. Benefits of oral supplementation with symbiotic zir fos (Bifidobacterium longum W11+ FOS Actilight). Acta Biomed 2006; 77: 15762.
  • 75
    De Paula JA, Carmuega E, Weill R. Effect of the ingestion of a symbiotic yogurt on the bowel habits of women with functional constipation. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 2008; 38: 1625.
  • 76
    Bekkali NL, Bongers ME, Van den Berg MM, Liem O, Benninga MA. The role of a probiotics mixture in the treatment of childhood constipation: a pilot study. Nutr J 2007; 6: 17.
  • 77
    Bu LN, Chang MH, Ni YH, Chen HL, Cheng CC. Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in children with chronic constipation. Pediatr Int 2007; 49: 48590.
  • 78
    Ouwehand AC, Lagstrom H, Suomalainen T, Salminen S. Effect of probiotics on constipation, fecal azoreductase activity and fecal mucin content in the elderly. Ann Nutr Metab 2002; 46: 15962.
  • 79
    Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis SM, Surace R, Ashman O, Siarakas S. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: 47583.
  • 80
    Pitkala KH, Strandberg TE, Finne Soveri UH, Ouwehand AC, Poussa T, Salminen S. Fermented cereal with specific bifidobacteria normalizes bowel movements in elderly nursing home residents. A randomized, controlled trial. J Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11: 30511.
  • 81
    Colecchia A, Vestito A, La Rocca A et al. Effect of a symbiotic preparation on the clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation-variant. Results of an open, uncontrolled multicenter study. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2006; 52: 34958.
  • 82
    Drouault-Holowacz S, Bieuvelet S, Burckel A, Cazaubiel M, Dray X, Marteau P. A double blind randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2008; 32: 14752.
  • 83
    Dughera L, Elia C, Navino M, Cisarò F; ARMONIA Study Group. Effects of symbiotic preparations on constipated irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Acta Biomed 2007; 78: 1116.
  • 84
    Guyonnet D, Chassany O, Ducrotte P et al. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26: 47586.
  • 85
    O’Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 54151.
  • 86
    Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J et al. Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 32633.
    Direct Link:
  • 87
    Baker DE. Rationale for using serotonergic agents to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62: 70011.
  • 88
    Beattie DT, Smith JA. Serotonin pharmacology in the gastrointestinal tract: a review. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2008; 377: 181203.
  • 89
    Kim DY, Camilleri M. Serotonin: a mediator of the brain-gut connection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 2698709.
  • 90
    Gershon MD. Nerves, reflexes, and the enteric nervous system: pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39: S18493.
  • 91
    Buchheit KH, Buhl T. Stimulant effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on guinea pig stomach preparations in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 262: 917.
  • 92
    De Maeyer JH, Lefebvre RA, Schuurkes JA. A 5-HT4 receptor agonists: similar but not the same. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 99112.
  • 93
    Wagstaff AJ, Frampton JE, Croom KF. Tegaserod: a review of its use in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women. Drugs 2003; 63: 110120.
  • 94
    Budhoo MR, Harris RP, Kellum JM. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced Cl- transport is mediated by 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the rat distal colon. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 298: 13744.
  • 95
    Ning Y, Zhu JX, Chan HC. Regulation of ion transport by 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat colon. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004; 31: 4248.
  • 96
    Safsten B, Sjoblom M, Flemstrom G. Serotonin increases protective duodenal bicarbonate secretion via enteric ganglia and a 5-HT4-dependent pathway. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006; 41: 127989.
  • 97
    Nguyen A, Camilleri M, Kost LJ et al. SDZ HTF 919 stimulates canine colonic motility and transit in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 280: 12706.
  • 98
    Grider JR, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Jin JG. 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists initiate the peristaltic reflex in human, rat, and guinea pig intestine. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 37080.
  • 99
    Degen L, Matzinger D, Merz M et al. Tegaserod, a 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, accelerates gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in healthy male subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 174551.
  • 100
    Prather CM, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister AR, McKinzie S, Thomforde G. Tegaserod accelerates orocecal transit in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 4638.
  • 101
    Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Venkova K, Hicks G, Dennis E, Crowell MD. Activation of peripheral 5-HT receptors attenuates colonic sensitivity to intraluminal distension. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2006; 18: 7686.
  • 102
    Coffin B, Farmachidi JP, Rueegg P, Bastie A, Bouhassira D. Tegaserod, a 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, decreases sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 57785.
  • 103
    Kellow J, Lee OY, Chang FY et al. An Asia-Pacific, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tegaserod in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2003; 52: 6716.
  • 104
    Tack J, Muller-Lissner S, Bytzer P et al. A randomised controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of repeated tegaserod therapy in women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Gut 2005; 54: 170713.
  • 105
    Novick J, Miner P, Krause R et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tegaserod in female patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 187788.
  • 106
    Muller-Lissner SA, Fumagalli I, Bardhan KD et al. Tegaserod, a 5-HT(4) receptor partial agonist, relieves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients with abdominal pain, bloating and constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 165566.
  • 107
    Evans BW, Clark WK, Moore DJ, Whorwell PJ. Tegaserod for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; CD003960.
  • 108
    Johanson JF, Wald A, Tougas G et al. Effect of tegaserod in chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 796805.
  • 109
    Kamm MA, Muller-Lissner S, Talley NJ et al. Tegaserod for the treatment of chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 36272.
    Direct Link:
  • 110
    On Chan AO, Mo Hui W, Leung G, Hu WH, Lam SK, Wong BC. Efficacy of tegaserod for functional constipation in Chinese subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial in a single centre. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 4639.
  • 111
    Lin SR, Ke MY, Luo JY et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of tegaserod in patients from China with chronic constipation. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 7329.
  • 112
    Fried M, Johanson JF, Gwee KA, Wagner A, Pecher E, Rueegg P. Efficacy of tegaserod in chronic constipation in men. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 36270.
    Direct Link:
  • 113
    American College of Gastroenterology Chronic Constipation Task Force. An evidencebased approach to the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100(Suppl. 1): S1S4.
    Direct Link:
  • 114
    Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA, Roy AJ, Antonelli K. Effect of a novel prokinetic drug, R093877, on gastrointestinal transit in healthy volunteers. Gut 1998; 42: 5116.
  • 115
    Jin JG, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Grider JR. Propulsion in guinea pig colon induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) via 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 288: 9397.
  • 116
    Bouras EP, Camilleri M, Burton DD, McKinzie S. Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans. Gut 1999; 44: 6826.
  • 117
    Bouras EP, Camilleri M, Burton DD, Thomforde G, McKinzie S, Zinsmeister AR. Prucalopride accelerates gastrointestinal and colonic transit in patients with constipation without a rectal evacuation disorder. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 35460.
  • 118
    Emmanuel AV, Roy AJ, Nicholls TJ, Kamm MA. Prucalopride, a systemic enterokinetic, for the treatment of constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 134756.
  • 119
    Sloots CE, Poen AC, Kerstens R et al. Effects of prucalopride on colonic transit, anorectal function and bowel habits in patients with chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 75967.
  • 120
    Coremans G, Kerstens R, De Pauw M, Stevens M. Prucalopride is effective in patients with severe chronic constipation in whom laxatives fail to provide adequate relief. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Digestion 2003; 67: 8289.
  • 121
    Camilleri M, Kerstens R, Rykx A, Vandeplassche L. A placebo-controlled trial of prucalopride for severe chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 234454.
  • 122
    Tack J, Van Outryve M, Beyens G, Kerstens R, Vandeplassche G. Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives. Gut 2009; 53: 35765.
  • 123
    Quigley EM, Vandeplassche L, Kerstens R, Ausma J. Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation--a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 31528.
  • 124
    Scarpellini E, Tack J. Renzapride: a new drug for the treatment of constipation in the irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2008; 17: 166370.
  • 125
    Tack J, Middleton SJ, Horne MC et al. Pilot study of the efficacy of renzapride on gastrointestinal motility and symptoms in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 165565.
  • 126
    Camilleri M, McKinzie S, Fox J et al. Effect of renzapride on transit in constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 895904.
  • 127
    George AM, Meyers NL, Hickling RI. Clinical trial: renzapride therapy for constipationpredominant irritable bowel syndrome – multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in primary healthcare setting. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 8307.
  • 128
    Meyers NL, Hickling RI. Pharmacology and metabolism of renzapride: a novel therapeutic agent for the potential treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Drugs R D 2008; 9: 3763.
  • 129
    Kim HS, Choi EJ, Park H. The effect of mosapride citrate on proximal and distal colonic motor function in the guinea-pig in vitro. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 16976.
  • 130
    Camilleri M, Manini M, McKinzie S et al. Dose-related effects of TD-5108, a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist with high intrinsic activity, on gastrointestinal (GI) and colonic transit in healthy volunteers. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20(Suppl. 2): 6 (Abstract). 131.
  • 131
    Goldberg MR, Li Y-P, Mangel AW, Johanson JF, Pitzer K, Kitt MM. In patients with chronic constipation, TD-5108, a selective 5-HT4 agonist with high intrinsic activity, relieves straining and bloating, normalizes stool consistency and reduces laxative use. Gastroenterology 2008; 134(Suppl. 1): A547. (Abstract).
  • 132
    Camilleri M, Vazquez-Roque MI, Burton D et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of a novel prokinetic 5-HT receptor agonist, ATI-7505, in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007; 19: 3038.
  • 133
    Coleman NS, Marciani L, Blackshaw E et al. Effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor agonist MKC-733 on upper gastrointestinal motility in humans. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 103948.
  • 134
    Fujita T, Yokota S, Sawada M, Majima M, Ohtani Y, Kumagai Y. Effect of MKC-733, a 5-HT receptor partial agonist, on bowel motility and symptoms in subjects with constipation: an exploratory study. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005; 30: 61122.
  • 135
    Buchler MW, Seiler CM, Monson JR et al. Clinical trial: alvimopan for the management of post-operative ileus after abdominal surgery: results of an international randomized, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 28: 31225.
  • 136
    Webster L, Jansen JP, Peppin J et al. Alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR) antagonist for the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in subjects taking opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain 2008; 137: 42840.
  • 137
    Schmidt WK. Alvimopan* (ADL 8-2698) is a novel peripheral opioid antagonist. Am J Surg 2001; 182: 27S38S.
  • 138
    Foss JF, Fisher DM, Schmith VD. Pharmacokinetics of alvimopan and its metabolite in healthy volunteers and patients in postoperative ileus trials. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83: 7706.
  • 139
    Gonenne J, Camilleri M, Ferber I et al. Effect of alvimopan and codeine on gastrointestinal transit: a randomized controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3: 78491.
  • 140
    Garnett W, Kelleher DL, Hickmott F et al. Alvimopan (ALV) shortens whole bowel transit time in adults with chronic constipation (CC). Gastroenterology 2004; 126: A643. (Abstract).
  • 141
    Kelleher D, Johanson J, Pobiner B, Carter E, Dukes G. Alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR) antagonist – a study in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) not taking opioid medication. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: S480. (Abstract).
  • 142
    Russell J, Bass P, Goldberg LI, Schuster CR, Merz H. Antagonism of gut, but not central effects of morphine with quaternary narcotic antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol 1982; 78: 25561.
  • 143
    Brown DR, Goldberg LI. The use of quaternary narcotic antagonists in opiate research. Neuropharmacology 1985; 24: 18191.
  • 144
    Thomas J, Karver S, Cooney GA et al. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 233243.
  • 145
    Yuan CS, Foss JF, O’Connor M et al. Methylnaltrexone for reversal of constipation due to chronic methadone use: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000; 283: 36772.
  • 146
    Yuan CS, Foss JF, O’Connor M, Toledano A, Roizen MF, Moss J. Methylnaltrexone prevents morphine-induced delay in oral-cecal transit time without affecting analgesia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59: 46975.
  • 147
    Murphy DB, Sutton JA, Prescott LF, Murphy MB. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 76570.
  • 148
    Yuan CS, Foss JF, Osinski J, Toledano A, Roizen MF, Moss J. The safety and efficacy of oral methylnaltrexone in preventing morphine-induced delay in oral-cecal transit time. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61: 46775.
  • 149
    McNicol ED, Boyce D, Schumann R, Carr DB. Mu-opioid antagonists for opioidinduced bowel dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; CD006332.
  • 150
    Camilleri M, Bharucha AE, Ueno R et al. Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290: G9427.
  • 151
    Sweetser S, Busciglio IA, Camilleri M et al. Effect of a chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on colonic sensory and motor functions in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2009; 296: G295301.
  • 152
    Andresen V, Camilleri M, Busciglio IA et al. Effect of 5 days linaclotide on transit and bowel function in females with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2007; 33: 618.
  • 153
    Johnston J, MacDougall J, Lavins B et al. Linaclotide significantly improved abdominal pain, constipation and global assessments in adults with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: results from a large twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: S4601. (Abstract).
  • 154
    Coulie B, Szarka LA, Camilleri M et al. Recombinant human neurotrophic factors accelerate colonic transit and relieve constipation in humans. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 4150.
  • 155
    Parkman HP, Rao SS, Reynolds JC et al. Functional Constipation Study Investigators. Neurotrophin-3 improves functional constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 133847.
    Direct Link: