• 1
    Parkman HP, Hasler WL, Fisher RS. American Gastroenterological Association Technical Review on the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 1592622.
  • 2
    Brener W, Hendrix TR, McHugh PR. Regulation of the gastric emptying of glucose. Gastroenterology 1983; 85: 7682.
  • 3
    Elias E, Gibson GJ, Greenwood LF, Hunt JN, Tripp JH. The slowing of gastric emptying by monosaccharides and disaccharides in test meals. J Physiol (Lond) 1968; 194: 31726.
  • 4
    Sanger G, Lee K. Hormones of the gut-brain axis as targets for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2008; 7: 24154.
  • 5
    Krishna AY, Blevins LS Jr. Case report: reversible gastroparesis in patients with hypopituitary disease. Am J Med Sci 1996; 312: 435.
  • 6
    Valenzuela G, Davis T Jr, McGroarty D, Pizzani E, Zfass A. Primary adrenal insufficiency: a new cause of reversible gastric stasis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85: 16268.
  • 7
    Kahraman H, Kaya N, Demircali A, Bernay I, Tanyeri F. Gastric emptying time in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 9: 9014.
  • 8
    Murphy KG, Dhillo WS, Bloom SR. Gut peptides in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Endocr Rev 2006; 27: 71927.
  • 9
    Tack J, Lee KJ. Pathophysiology and treatment of functional dyspepsia. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39: S2116.
  • 10
    Tack J, Caenepeel P, Fischler B, Piessevaux H, Janssens J. Symptoms associated with hypersensitivity to gastric distension in functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 52635.
  • 11
    Schwartz MP, Samsom M, Smout AJ. Chemospecific alterations in duodenal perception and motor response in functional dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 2596602.
    Direct Link:
  • 12
    Pilichiewicz AN, Horowitz M, Holtmann GJ, Talley NJ, Feinle-Bisset C. Relationship between symptoms and dietary patterns in patients with functional dyspepsia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 7: 31722.
  • 13
    Pilichiewicz AN, Feltrin KL, Horowitz M et al. Functional dyspepsia is associated with a greater symptomatic response to fat but not carbohydrate, increased fasting and postprandial CCK, and diminished PYY. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 261323.
    Direct Link:
  • 14
    Feinle C, Rades T, Otto B, Fried M. Fat digestion modulates gastrointestinal sensations induced by gastric distension and duodenal lipid in humans. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 11007.
  • 15
    Feinle C, Grundy D, Fried M. Modulation of gastric distension-induced sensations by small intestinal receptors. Am J Physiol 2001; 280: G517.
  • 16
    Chua AS, Keeling PW. Cholecystokinin hyperresponsiveness in functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 268893.
  • 17
    McCallum RW, Cynshi O. Investigative Team. Clinical trial: effect of mitemcinal (a motilin agonist) on gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis – a randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26: 112130.
  • 18
    Talley NJ, Verlinden M, Snape W et al. Failure of a motilin receptor antagonist (ABT-229) to relieve the symptoms of functional dyspepsia in patients with and without delayed gastric emptying: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 165361.
  • 19
    Lanzini A, Magni P, Petroni ML et al. Circulating ghrelin level is increased in coeliac disease as in functional dyspepsia and reverts to normal during gluten-free diet. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 90713.
  • 20
    Akamizu T, Iwakura H, Ariyasu H et al. Repeated administration of ghrelin to patients with functional dyspepsia: its effects on food intake and appetite. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 4918.
  • 21
    Ejskjaer N, Dimcevski G, Wo J et al. Safety and efficacy of ghrelin agonist TZP-101 in relieving symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22: 1069e281.
  • 22
    Fraser RJ, Horowitz M, Maddox AF, Harding PE, Chatterton BE, Dent J. Hyperglycaemia slows gastric emptying in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1990; 33: 67580.
  • 23
    Schvarcz E, Palmér M, Aman J, Horowitz M, Stridsberg M, Berne C. Physiological hyperglycemia slows gastric emptying in normal subjects and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 606.
  • 24
    Russo A, Stevens JE, Chen R et al. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia accelerates gastric emptying of solids and liquids in long-standing type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 448995.
  • 25
    Kuo P, Gentilcore D, Nair N et al. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Ng-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester, attenuates the delay in gastric emptying induced by hyperglycemia in healthy humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009; 21: 1175e103.
  • 26
    Yeap BB, Russo A, Fraser RJ, Wittert GA, Horowitz M. Hyperglycemia affects cardiovascular autonomic nerve function in normal subjects. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 8802.
  • 27
    Monnier L, Lapinski H, Colette C et al. Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetic patients: variations with increasing levels of HbA1c. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 8815.
  • 28
    Horowitz M, Edelbroek MA, Wishart JM. Relationship between oral glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in normal healthy subjects. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 85762.
  • 29
    Jones KL, Horowitz M, Carney BJ. Gastric emptying in early non-insulin diabetes mellitus. J Nucl Med 1996; 37: 16438.
  • 30
    Woerle HJ, Albrecht M, Linke R et al. Importance of changes in gastric emptying for postprandial plasma glucose fluxes in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008; 294: E1039.
  • 31
    Gonlachanvit S, Hsu CW, Boden GH et al. Effect of altering gastric emptying on postprandial plasma glucose concentrations following a physiologic meal in type-II diabetic patients. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 48897.
  • 32
    Pilichiewicz A, O’Donovan D, Feinle C et al. Effect of lipase inhibition on gastric emptying of, and the glycemic and incretin responses to, an oil/aqueous drink in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 382934.
  • 33
    Kuo P, Stevens JE, Bellon M et al. Acute effects of pancreatic enzyme replacement on gastric emptying and postprandial glycemia in patients with cystic fibrosis (Abstract). Gastroenterology 2009; 136(5 Suppl. 1): P-272.
  • 34
    Pilichiewicz AN, Papadopoulos P, Brennan IM et al. Load-dependent effects of duodenal glucose on glycemia, gastrointestinal hormones, antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E74353.
  • 35
    Rayner CK, Ma J, Pilichiewicz A et al. Effects of variations in duodenal glucose load on glycemia, insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2009; 52: S106.
  • 36
    Vilsboll T, Holst JJ. Incretins, insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2004; 47: 35766.
  • 37
    Vollmer K, Holst JJ, Baller B et al. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance. Diabetes 2008; 57: 67887.
  • 38
    Deane AM, Nguyen NQ, Stevens JE et al. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 slows gastric emptying in healthy subjects, attenuating postprandial glycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 211521.
  • 39
    Schirra J, Nicolaus M, Roggel P et al. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 controls endocrine pancreatic secretion and antro-pyloro-duodenal motility in humans. Gut 2006; 55: 24351.
  • 40
    Little TJ, Doran S, Meyer JH et al. Effects of intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying and intragastric distribution in healthy subjects: relationships with postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 191623.
  • 41
    Willms B, Werner J, Ørskov C, Holst JJ, Creutzfeldt W, Nauck MA. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal: effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide in type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 32732.
  • 42
    Meier JJ, Goetze O, Anstipp J et al. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004; 286: e6215.
  • 43
    Ishii M, Nakamura T, Kasai F, Onuma T, Baba T, Takebe K. Altered postprandial insulin requirement in IDDM patients with gastroparesis. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 9013.
  • 44
    Harsch IA, Koebnick C, Tasi AM, Hahn EG, Konturek PC. Ghrelin and obestatin levels with type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying. Dig Dis Sci 2009; 54: 21616.
  • 45
    Lysy J, Israeli E, Strauss-Liviatan N, Goldin E. Relationships between hypoglycemia and gastric emptying abnormalities in insulin-treated diabetic patients. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2006; 18: 43340.
  • 46
    Andersen JH, Brunelle RL, Kolvisto A et al. Reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia and frequency of hypoglycemia in IDDM patients on insulin analog treatment. Diabetes 1997; 46: 26570.
  • 47
    Gentilcore D, Chaikomin R, Jones KL et al. Effects of fat on gastric emptying of, and the glycemic, insulin and incretin responses to, a carbohydrate meaI in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 20627.
  • 48
    Ma J, Stevens JE, Cukier K et al. Effects of a protein preload on gastric emptying, glycemia, and gut hormones after a carbohydrate meal in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 16002.
  • 49
    Linnebjerg H, Park S, Kothare PA et al. Effect of exenatide on gastric emptying and relationship to postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Regul Pept 2008; 151: 1239.
  • 50
    Drucker DJ, Buse JB, Taylor K et al. DURATION-1 Study Group. Exenatide once weekly versus twice daily for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study. Lancet 2008; 372: 124050.
  • 51
    Chapman M, Fraser R, Vozzo R et al. Antro-pyloro-duodenal motor responses to gastric and duodenal nutrient in critically ill patients. Gut 2005; 54: 138490.
  • 52
    Nguyen NQ, Fraser RJ, Chapman M et al. Feed intolerance in critical illness is associated with increased basal and nutrient-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin concentrations. Crit Care Med 2007; 35: 828.
  • 53
    Nguyen NQ, Fraser RJL, Chapman M et al. Fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma peptide-YY levels are elevated in critical illness and associated with feed intolerance: an observational, controlled study. Crit Care 2006; 10: R175.
  • 54
    Nguyen NQ, Fraser RJ, Bryant LK et al. The relationship between gastric emptying, plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY in critically ill patients. Crit Care 2007; 11: R132.
  • 55
    Nguyen NQ, Chapman M, Bellon M et al. The role of 13C-octanoic acid breath testing in the assessment of gastric emptying in critically ill patients. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: A247.
  • 56
    Baranowska B, Radzikowska M, Wasilewska-Dziubinska E, Roguski K, Borowiec M. Disturbed release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab 2000; 2: 99103.
  • 57
    McDermott J, Leslie F, D’Amato M, Thompson DG, Grencis R, McLaughlin JT. Immune control of food intake: enteroendocrine cells are regulated by CD4+ T lymphocytes during small intestinal inflammation. Gut 2006; 55: 4927.