• 1
    Chitkara DK, van Tilburg MA, Blois-Martin N, Whitehead WE. Early life risk factors that contribute to irritable bowel syndrome in adults: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 76574 (Review).
    Direct Link:
  • 2
    Peters KM, Killinger KA, Ibrahim IA. Childhood symptoms and events in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology 2009; 73: 25862.
  • 3
    Saps M, Seshadri R, Sztainberg M, Schaffer G, Marshall BM, Di Lorenzo C. A prospective school-based study of abdominal pain and other common somatic complaints in children. J Pediatr 2009; 154: 3226.
  • 4
    Shaikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, Farrell MH. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27: 3028.
  • 5
    Freedman AL; Urologic Diseases in America Project. Urologic diseases in North America Project: trends in resource utilization for urinary tract infections in children. J Urol 2005; 173: 94954.
  • 6
    Brumovsky PR, Gebhart GF. Visceral organ cross-sensitization – an integrated perspective. Auton Neurosci 2010; 153: 10615.
  • 7
    Longstreth GF. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pelvic pain. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1994; 49: 5057.
  • 8
    Alagiri M, Chottiner S, Ratner V, Slade D, Hanno PM. Interstitial cystitis: unexplained associations with other chronic disease and pain syndromes. Urology 1997; 49: 527.
  • 9
    Miranda A, Peles S, Shaker R, Rudolph C, Sengupta JN. Neonatal nociceptive somatic stimulation differentially modifies the activity of spinal neurons in rats and results in altered somatic and visceral sensation. J Physiol 2006; 572: 77587.
  • 10
    Coutinho SV, Meller ST, Gebhart GF. Intracolonic zymosan produces visceral hyperalgesia in the rat that is mediated by spinal NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. Brain Res 1996; 736: 715.
  • 11
    Ide Y, Maehara Y, Tsukahara S, Kitahata LM, Collins JG. The effects of an intrathecal NMDA antagonist (AP5) on the behavioral changes induced by colorectal inflammation with turpentine in rats. Life Sci 1997; 60: 135963.
  • 12
    Kolhekar R, Gebhart GF. NMDA and quisqualate modulation of visceral nociception in the rat. Brain Res 1994; 651: 21526.
  • 13
    Kolhekar R, Gebhart GF. Modulation of spinal visceral nociceptive transmission by NMDA receptor activation in the rat. J Neurophysiol 1996; 75: 234453.
  • 14
    Zhou Q, Price DD, Caudle RM, Verne GN. Spinal NMDA NR1 subunit expression following transient TNBS colitis. Brain Res 2009; 1279: 10920.
  • 15
    Randich A, Meller ST, Gebhart GF. Responses of primary afferents and spinal dorsal horn neurons to thermal and mechanical stimuli before and during zymosan-induced inflammation of the rat hindpaw. Brain Res 1997; 772: 13548.
  • 16
    Randich A, Uzzell T, Cannon R, Ness TJ. Inflammation and enhanced nociceptive responses to bladder distension produced by intravesical zymosan in the rat. BMC Urol 2006; 6: 2.
  • 17
    Randich A, Uzzell T, DeBerry JJ, Ness TJ. Neonatal urinary bladder inflammation produces adult bladder hypersensitivity. J Pain 2006; 7: 46979.
  • 18
    Ustinova EE, Fraser MO, Pezzone MA. Colonic irritation in the rat sensitizes urinary bladder afferents to mechanical and chemical stimuli: an afferent origin of pelvic organ cross-sensitization. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006; 290: F147887.
  • 19
    Liang R, Ustinova EE, Patnam R, Fraser MO, Gutkin DW, Pezzone MA. Enhanced expression of mast cell growth factor and mast cell activation in the bladder following the resolution of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis in female rats. Neurourol Urodyn 2007; 26: 88793.
  • 20
    Pezzone MA, Liang R, Fraser MO. A model of neural cross-talk and irritation in the pelvis: implications for the overlap of chronic pelvic pain disorders. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 195364.
  • 21
    Christianson JA, Liang R, Ustinova EE, Davis BM, Fraser MO, Pezzone MA. Convergence of bladder and colon sensory innervation occurs at the primary afferent level. Pain 2007; 128: 23543.
  • 22
    Miranda A, Peles S, Rudolph C, Shaker R, Sengupta JN. Altered visceral sensation in response to somatic pain in the rat. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 10829.
  • 23
    Goldman JM, Murr AS, Cooper RL. The rodent estrous cycle: characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2007; 80: 8497 (Review).
  • 24
    Spanos C, Pang X, Ligris K et al. Stress-induced bladder mast cell activation: implications for interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1997; 157: 66972.
  • 25
    Sengupta JN, Gebhart GF. Mechanosensitive properties of pelvic nerve afferent fibers innervating the urinary bladder of the rat. J Neurophysiol 1994; 72: 242030.
  • 26
    Banerjee B, Medda BK, Zheng Y et al. Alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits in primary sensory neurons following acid-induced esophagitis in cats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2009; 296: 6677.
  • 27
    Ji Y, Tang B, Traub RJ. The visceromotor response to colorectal distention fluctuates with the estrous cycle in rats. Neuroscience 2008; 154: 15627.
  • 28
    Ustinova EE, Gutkin DW, Pezzone MA. Sensitization of pelvic nerve afferents and mast cell infiltration in the urinary bladder following chronic colonic irritation is mediated by neuropeptides. Am J Physiol 2007; 292: F12330.
  • 29
    DeBerry J, Randich A, Shaffer AD, Robbins MT, Ness TJ. Neonatal bladder inflammation produces functional changes and alters neuropeptide content in bladders of adult female rats. J Pain 2010; 11: 24755.
  • 30
    Winnard KP, Dmitrieva N, Berkley KJ. Cross-organ interactions between reproductive, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts: modulation by estrous stage and involvement of the hypogastric nerve. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006; 291: 592601.
  • 31
    Keast JR, de Groat WC. Segmental distribution and peptide content of primary afferent neurons innervating the urogenital organs and colon of male rats. J Comp Neurol 1992; 319: 61523.
  • 32
    Ness TJ, Randich A. Neonatal bladder inflammation alters activity of adult rat spinal visceral nociceptive neurons. Neurosci Lett 2010; 472: 2104.
  • 33
    DeBerry J, Ness TJ, Robbins MT, Randich A. Inflammation-induced enhancement of the visceromotor reflex to urinary bladder distention: modulation by endogenous opioids and the effects of early-in-life experience with bladder inflammation. J Pain 2007; 8: 91423.
  • 34
    Hathway GJ, Koch S, Low L, Fitzgerald M. The changing balance of brainstem-spinal cord modulation of pain processing over the first weeks of rat postnatal life. J Physiol 2009; 587: 292735.
  • 35
    Qin C, Foreman RD. Viscerovisceral convergence of urinary bladder and colorectal inputs to lumbosacral spinal neurons in rats. Neuroreport 2004; 15: 46771.
  • 36
    Al-Chaer ED, Kawasaki M, Pasricha PJ. A new model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats induced by colon irritation during postnatal development. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 127685.
  • 37
    Kashiwagi K, Pahk AJ, Masuko T, Igarashi K, Williams K. Block and modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by polyamines and protons: role of amino acid residues in the transmembrane and pore-forming regions of NR1 and NR2 subunits. Mol Pharmacol 1997; 52: 70113.
  • 38
    Zheng X, Zhang L, Durand GM, Bennett MV, Zukin RS. Mutagenesis rescues spermine and Zn2+ potentiation of recombinant NMDA receptors. Neuron 1994; 12: 8118.
  • 39
    Zhou Q, Price DD, Caudle RM, Verne GN. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of rats following TNBS-induced colitis. Pain 2008; 134: 915.