• 1
    Tack J, Talley NJ, Camilleri M et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 146679.
  • 2
    Quigley EM. Gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20(suppl 7): 5660.
  • 3
    Shindo T, Futagami S, Hiratsuka T et al. Comparison of gastric emptying and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with functional dyspepsia and non-erosive reflux disease. Digestion 2009; 79: 6572.
  • 4
    Futagami S, Iwakiri K, Shindo T et al. The prokinetic effect of mosapride citrate combined with omeprazole therapy improves clinical symptoms and gastric emptying in PPI-resistant NERD patients with delayed gastric emptying. J Gastroenterol 2010; 45: 41321.
  • 5
    Hamm HE. The many faces of G protein sihnaling. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 66972.
  • 6
    Holtmann G, Gschossmann J, Neufang-Hüber J, Gerken G, Talley NJ. Differences in gastric mechanosensory function after repeated ramp distensions in non-consulters with dyspepsia and healthy controls. Gut 2000; 47: 3326.
  • 7
    Stanghellini V, Tosetti C, Patermico A et al. Risk indicators of delayed gastric emptying of solids in patients with functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 103642.
  • 8
    Wilmer A, Van Cutsem E, Andrioli T, Tack J, Coremans G, Janssens J. Ambulatory gastro-jejunal manometry in severe motility-like dyspepsia: lack of correlation between dysmotility, symptoms, and gastric emptying. Gut 1999; 42: 23542.
  • 9
    Greydanus MP, Vassallo M, Camilleri M, Nelson DK, Hanson RB, Thomforde GM. Neurohormonal factors in functional dyspepsia: insights on pathophysilogical mechanisms. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 13118.
  • 10
    Drossman DA, McKee DC, Sandler RS et al. Psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome. A multivariate study of patients and nonpatients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 7018.
  • 11
    Baumgart D, Naber C, Haude M et al. G protein beta 3 subunit 825 T allele and enhanced coronary vasoconstriction on alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation. Cir Res 1999; 85: 9659.
  • 12
    Holtman G, Siffert W, Haag S et al. G-protein beta 3 subunit 825 CC genotype is associated with unexplained (functional) dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 9719.
  • 13
    Camilleri CE, Carlson PJ, Camilleri M et al. A study of candidate genotypes associated with dyspepsia in a U.S. community. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 58192.
    Direct Link:
  • 14
    Locke GR 3rd, Zinsmeister AR, Talley NJ et al. Familial association in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Mayo Clin Proc 2000; 75: 90712.
  • 15
    Van Oudenhove L, Kindt S, Vos R, Coulie B, Tack J. Influence of buspirone on gastric sensorimotor function in man. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 28: 132633.
  • 16
    Boeckxstaens GE, Tygat GN, Wajs E et al. The influence of the novel 5-HT1A agonist R137696 on the proximal stomach function in healthy volunteers. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2006; 18: 91926.
  • 17
    Graf S, Sarna SK. 5-HT-induced jejunal motor activity: enteric locus of action and receptor subtypes. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: G9921000.
  • 18
    Grider JR, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Jin JG. 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists initiate the peristaltic reflex in human, rat, and guinea pig intestine. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 37080.
  • 19
    Van Lelyveld N, Linde JT, Schipper M, Samsom M. Candidate genotypes associated with functional dyspepsia. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 76773.
  • 20
    Drossman DA. The functional gastrointestinal disorders and the Rome III process. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 137790.
  • 21
    McColl K, Murray L, El-Omar E et al. Symptomatic benefit from eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 186974.
  • 22
    Portincasa P, Altomare DF, Moschetta A et al. The effect of acute oral erythromycin on gallbladder motility and on upper gastrointestinal symptoms in gastrectomized patients with and without gallstones: a randomized, placebo-controlled ultrasonographic study. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 344451.
    Direct Link:
  • 23
    Hellmig S, Von Schoning F, Gadow C et al. Gastric emptying time of fluids and solids in healthy subjects determined by 13C breath tests: influence of age, sex and body mass index. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 21: 18328.
  • 24
    Rockliff BW. A brief self-rating questionnaire for depression (SRQ-D). Psychosomatics 1969; 10: 23643.
  • 25
    El-Omar EM, Banerjee S, Wirz A, McColl KE. The Glasgow dyspepsia severity score-a tool for the global measurement of dyspepsia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 8: 96771.
  • 26
    Futagami S, Shindo T, Kawagoe T et al. Migration of eosinophils and CCR2-/CD68-double positive cells into the duodenal mucosa of patients with postinfectious functional dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: 183542.
  • 27
    Morris-Yates A, Talley NJ, Boyce PM, Nandurkar S, Andrews G. Evidence of a genetic contribution to functional bowel disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 8: 13117.
    Direct Link:
  • 28
    Levy RL, Jones KR, Whitehead WE, Feld SI, Talley NJ, Corey LA. Irritable bowel synfrome in twins; heredity and social learning both contribute to etiology. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 799804.
  • 29
    Kalantar JS, Locke GR 3rd, Zinsmeister AR, Beighley CM, Talley NJ. Familial aggregation of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study. Gut 2003; 52: 17037.
  • 30
    Zill P, Baghai TC, Zwanzger P et al. Evidence for an association between a G-protein beta3-gene variant with depression and response to antidepressant treatment. Neuroreport 2000; 11: 18937.
  • 31
    Lidemann M, Virchow S, Ramann F et al. The G protein beta 3 subunit 825T allele is a genetic marker for enhanced T cell response. FEBS Lett 2001; 495: 826.
  • 32
    Oshima T, Nakajima S, Yokoyama T et al. The G-protein beta3 subunit 825 TT genotype is associated with epigastric pain syndrome-like dyspepsia. BMC Med Genet 2010; 11: 13.
  • 33
    Grudell ABM, Camilleri M, Carlson P et al. An exploratory study of the association of adrenergic and serotonergic genotype and gastrointestinal motor functions. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 2139.
  • 34
    Costa AJ, Silva GA, Gouveia PA, Pereira Filho EM. Prevalence of pathologic gastroesophageal reflux in regurgitant infants. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2004; 80: 2915.
  • 35
    Trudgill NJ, Kapur KC, Riley SA. Familial clustering of reflux symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 11728.
    Direct Link:
  • 36
    Hu FZ, Preston RA, Post JC et al. Mapping of a gene for severe pediatric gastroesophageal reflux to chromosome 13q14. JAMA 2000; 284: 32534.
  • 37
    Orenstein SR, Shalaby TM, Finch R et al. Autosomal dominant infantile gastroesophageal reflux disease: exclusion of a 13q14 locus in five well characterized families. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 272532.
    Direct Link:
  • 38
    Mohammed I, Cherkas LF, Riley SA, Spector TD, Trudgill NJ. Genetic influences in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a twin study. Gut 2003; 52: 10859.
  • 39
    Vries DR, Linde JJ, Herwaarden MA, Smout AJ, Samsom M. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with the C825T polymorphism in the G-protein β3 subunit gene (GNβ3). Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 2815.
  • 40
    Kapadia CR. Gastric atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia: a clinical perspective. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36 (Suppl 5): S2936.
  • 41
    Lee KJ, Vos R, Janssens J, Tack J. Influence of duodenal acidification on the sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 286: G27884.
  • 42
    Schwartz MP, Samsom M, Smout AJ. Chemospecific alterations in duodenal perception and motor response in functional dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 2596602.
    Direct Link:
  • 43
    Suzuki H, Hibi T, Marshall BJ. Helicobcater pylori: present status and future prospects in Japan. J Gastroenterol 2007; 42: 115.
  • 44
    Saito Y, Suzuki H, Tsugawa H et al. Dysfunctional gastric emptying with down-regulation of muscle-specific microRNAs in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 18998.
  • 45
    Tatsuguchi A, Miyake K, Gudis K et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin expression in human gastric mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 21217.
    Direct Link:
  • 46
    Tahara T, Arisawa T, Shibata T et al. Homozygous 825T allele of the GNB3 protein influences the susceptibility of Japanese to dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53: 6426.
  • 47
    Coulie B, Tack J, Sifrim D, Andrioli A, Janssens J. Role of nitric oxide in fasting gastric fundus tone and in 5-HT1 receptor-mediated relaxation of gastric fundus. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: G3737.
  • 48
    Tack J, Coulie B, Wilmer A, Andrioli A, Janssens J. Influence of sumatriptan on gastric fundus tone and on the perception of gastric distension in man. Gut 2000; 46: 46873.
  • 49
    Tack J, Sarnelli G. Serotonergic modulation of visceral sensation: upper gastrointestinal tract. Gut 2002; 51: 7780.