• 1
    Thapar N, Sanderson IR. Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries. Lancet 2004; 363(9409): 64153.
  • 2
    UNICEF/WHO. Diarrhoea: Why Children are Still Dying and what can be Done. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, New report 2009; 168.
  • 3
    Nwachukwu CE, Okebe JU. Antimotility agents for chronic diarrhoea in people with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; Issue 4: CD005644.
  • 4
    Thielman NM, Guerrant RL. From Rwanda to Wisconsin: the global relevance of diarrhoeal diseases. J Med Microbiol 1996; 44(3): 1556.
  • 5
    Ocfemia CB, Taylor C. Diarrheal illnesses: a public health perspective. Kans Nurse 2004; 79(4): 46.
  • 6
    Wood J. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13(9): 131332.
  • 7
    Yee EL, Staat MA, Azimi P et al. Burden of rotavirus disease among children visiting pediatric emergency departments in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Oakland, California, in 1999–2000. Pediatrics 2008; 122(5): 9717.
  • 8
    Farthing M. Antisecretory drugs for diarrheal disease. Dig Dis 2006; 24(1–2): 4758.
  • 9
    Jones SL, Blikslager AT. Role of the enteric nervous system in the pathophysiology of secretory diarrhea. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16(3): 2228.
  • 10
    Kisangau DP, Lyaruu HV, Hosea KM, Joseph CC. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2007; 3: 29.
  • 11
    Moreno-Salazar SF, Robles-Zepeda RE, Johnson DE. Plant folk medicines for gastrointestinal disorders among the main tribes of Sonora, Mexico. Fitoterapia 2008; 79(2): 13241.
  • 12
    Palombo EA. Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function. Phytother Res 2006; 20(9): 71724.
  • 13
    Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cardenas-Rodriguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Perez-Rojas JM. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(10): 322739.
  • 14
    Li JW, Vederas JC. Drug discovery and natural products: end of an era or an endless frontier? Science 2009; 325(5937): 1615.
  • 15
    Pothitirat W, Gritsanapan W. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometric analysis of alpha-mangostin content in Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts. J AOAC Int 2008; 91(5): 11458.
  • 16
    Balemba OB, Bhattarai Y, Stenkamp-strahm C, Lesakit MSB, Mawe GM. The traditional anti-diarrheal remedy, Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract, inhibits propulsive motility and fast synaptic potentials in the guinea pig distal colon. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22(12): 13329.
  • 17
    Balemba OB, Strong DS, Mawe GM. Garcinia buchananii bark extracts inhibit propulsive motility and fast synaptic potentials in the guinea pig distal colon. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009; 21(Suppl 1(abstract)): 312.
  • 18
    Costedio MM, Hyman N, Mawe GM. Serotonin and its role in colonic function and in gastrointestinal disorders. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50(3): 37688.
  • 19
    Gershon MD, Tack J. The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(1): 397414.
  • 20
    Spiller R. Serotonin and GI clinical disorders. Neuropharmacology 2008; 55(6): 107280.
  • 21
    Dickson EJ, Heredia DJ, Smith TK. Critical role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes in the initiation, generation, and propagation of the murine colonic migrating motor complex. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010; 299(1): G14457.
  • 22
    Jin JG, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Grider JR. Propulsion in guinea pig colon induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) via 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 288(1): 937.
  • 23
    Kadowaki M, Wade PR, Gershon MD. Participation of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and nicotinic receptors in the peristaltic reflex of guinea pig distal colon. Am J Physiol 1996; 271(5 Pt 1): G84957.
  • 24
    Neal KB, Parry LJ, Bornstein JC. Strain-specific genetics, anatomy and function of enteric neural serotonergic pathways in inbred mice. J Physiol 2009; 587(Pt 3): 56786.
  • 25
    Ataka K, Kuge T, Fujino K, Takahashi T, Fujimiya M. Wood creosote prevents CRF-induced motility via 5-HT3 receptors in proximal and 5-HT4 receptors in distal colon in rats. Auton Neurosci 2007; 133(2): 13645.
  • 26
    Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Tyler KR, Venkova K, Kuge T. Comparison of the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote and loperamide in the rat jejunum and colon in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 2000; 23(8): 9526.
  • 27
    Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa KI, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1998; 357(1): 2531.
  • 28
    Tokita Y, Yuzurihara M, Sakaguchi M, Satoh K, Kase Y. The pharmacological effects of Daikenchuto, a traditional herbal medicine, on delayed gastrointestinal transit in rat postoperative ileus. J Pharmacol Sci 2007; 104(4): 30310.
  • 29
    Magadula JJ. A bioactive isoprenylated xanthone and other constituents of Garcinia edulis. Fitoterapia 2010; 81(5): 4203.
  • 30
    Majaw S, Moirangthem J. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Clerodendron colebrookianumWalp. Leaves and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizomes. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009; 13: 57889.
  • 31
    Hoffman JM, Brooks EM, Mawe GM. Gastrointestinal Motility Monitor (GIMM). J Vis Exp 2010; (46): pii:2435.
  • 32
    De Maeyer JH LR, Schuurkes JA. 5-HT4 receptor agonists: similar but not the same. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20(2): 99112.
  • 33
    Mikami T OY, Suzuki K, Saito T, Sugie Y, Sakakibara M. 5-Amino-6-chloro-N-[(1-isobutylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-2-methylimidazo[1,2-alpha]pyridine-8-carboxamide (CJ-033,466), a novel and selective 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor partial agonist: pharmacological profile in vitro and gastroprokinetic effect in conscious dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008; 325(1): 1909.
  • 34
    Sanger GJ. Translating 5-HT receptor pharmacology. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009; 21(12): 12358.
  • 35
    Adaramoye OA, Medeiros IA. Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, in rat superior mesenteric arteries. J Smooth Muscle Res 2009; 45(1): 3953.
  • 36
    Nagakura Y, Kontoh A, Tokita K, Tomoi M, Shimomura K, Kadowaki M. Combined blockade of 5-HT3- and 5-HT4-serotonin receptors inhibits colonic functions in conscious rats and mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 281(1): 28490.
  • 37
    Nicholas S, Spencer NJ. Peristalsis and fecal pellet propulsion do not require nicotinic, purinergic, 5-HT3, or NK3 receptors in isolated guinea pig distal colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010; 298(6): G95261.
  • 38
    Sanger GJ, Andrews PL. Treatment of nausea and vomiting: gaps in our knowledge. Auton Neurosci 2006; 129(1–2): 316.
  • 39
    Faerber L, Drechsler S, Ladenburger S, Gschaidmeier H, Fischer W. The neuronal 5-HT3 receptor network after 20 years of research – evolving concepts in management of pain and inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 560(1): 18.
  • 40
    Taha Y, Raab Y, Carlson M et al. Steroids reduce local inflammatory mediator secretion and mucosal permeability in collagenous colitis patients. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12(43): 70128.
  • 41
    dos Reis SB, de Oliveira CC, Acedo SC et al. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract. Phytother Res 2009; 23(3): 3249.
  • 42
    Lee BH, Jeong SM, Lee JH et al. Quercetin inhibits the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor-mediated ion current by interacting with pre-transmembrane domain I. Mol Cells 2005; 20(1): 6973.