• 1
    Dent J, Dodds WJ, Friedman RH et al. Mechanism of gastroesophagal reflux in recumbent asymptomatic subjects. J Clin Invest 1980; 65: 25667.
  • 2
    Dent J, Holloway RH, Toouli J, Dodds WJ. Mechanisms of lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Gut 1988; 29: 10208.
  • 3
    Van Herwaarden MA, Samsom M, Smout AJ. Excess gastroesophageal reflux in patients with hiatus hernia is caused by mechanisms other than transient LES relaxations. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 143946.
  • 4
    Holloway RH, Penagini R, Ireland AC. Criteria for objective definition of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol 1995; 268: G12833.
  • 5
    Cucchiara S, Bortolotti M, Minella R, Auricchio S. Fasting and postprandial mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 8692.
  • 6
    Dodds WJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ et al. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 154752.
  • 7
    Dodds WJ, Kahrilas PJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ, Kern MK, Arndorfer RC. Analysis of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal acid clearance in patients with reflux esophagitis. J Gastrointest Motil 1990; 2: 7989.
  • 8
    Freidin N, Fisher MJ, Taylor W et al. Sleep and nocturnal acid reflux in normal subjects and patients with reflux oesophagitis. Gut 1991; 32: 12759.
  • 9
    Martin CJ, Patrikios J, Dent J. Abolition of gas reflux and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation by vagal blockade in the dog. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 8906.
  • 10
    Mittal RK, McCallum RW. Characteristics of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans. Am J Physiol 1987; 252: G63641.
  • 11
    Mittal RK, McCallum RW. Characteristics and frequency of transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter on patients with reflux esophagitis. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 5939.
  • 12
    Mittal RK, Stewart WR, Schirmer BD. Effect of a catheter in the pharynx on the frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 123640.
  • 13
    Boulant J, Fioramonti J, Dapoigny M, Bommelaer G, Bueno L. Cholecystokinin and nitric oxide in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation to gastric distention in dogs. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 105966.
  • 14
    Wyman JB, Dent J, Heddle R, Dodds WJ, Toouli J, Downton J. Control of belching by the lower oesophageal sphincter. Gut 1990; 31: 63946.
  • 15
    Hirsch D, Tytgat G, Boeckxstaens G. Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations – a pharmacological target for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 1726.
  • 16
    Sivri B, Mittal RK. Reverse-perfused sleeve: an improved device for measurement of sphincteric function of the crural diaphragm. Gastroenterology 1991; 101: 9629.
  • 17
    Mittal RK, Holloway RH, Penagini R, Blackshaw LA, Dent J. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 60110.
  • 18
    Mittal RK, Fisher MJ. Electrical and mechanical inhibition of the crural diaphragm during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 1990; 99: 12658.
  • 19
    Sifrim D, Silny J, Holloway RH, Janssens JJ. Patterns of gas and liquid reflux during transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation: a study using intraluminal electrical impedance. Gut 1999; 44: 4754.
  • 20
    Sifrim D, Holloway R, Silny J, Tack J, Lerut A, Janssens J. Composition of the postprandial refluxate in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 64755.
    Direct Link:
  • 21
    Boeckxstaens GE, Hirsch DP, Verkleij CB et al. Reproducibility of meal-induced transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2005; 17: 238.
  • 22
    Pandolfino J, Ghosh S, Q Z, Jarosz A, Shah N, Kahrilas P. Quantifying EGJ morphology and relaxation with high-resolution manometry: a study of 75 asymptomatic volunteers. Am J Physiol (Gastrointest Liver Physiol) 2006; 290: G101331040.
  • 23
    Rohof W, Boeckxstaens G, Hirsch D. High resolution esophageal topography is superior to conventional sleeve manometry for the detection of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations associated with a reflux event. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011; 23: 42732.