• 3D high-resolution manometry;
  • esophageal impedance planimetry;
  • high frequency esophageal endoscopic ultrasound;
  • high-resolution impedance manometry;
  • high-resolution manometry


Background  Symptom based diagnosis is not reliable in patients with swallowing problems, heartburn, and other dyspeptic complaints. The aim of investigation is to provide clinically relevant measurements of gastrointestinal structure and function that explain the cause of symptoms, identify pathology, and guide effective management. Current practice rarely meets these ideals.

Purpose  This review considers recent advances in technology such as high-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT), HRM with impedance, high frequency ultrasound, and endoscopic functional luminal impedance planimetry (Endo-FLIP) that provide new opportunities to identify the pathophysiologic basis of esophageal symptoms and disease. As experience with these new devices increases researchers are developing new methodologies that maximize their utility in clinical practice. For example, application of HRM to assess motility and function during and after a test meal can identify the causes of swallowing problems, reflux and other postprandial symptoms and intra-operative application of Endo-FLIP may help surgeons perform antireflux surgery. These examples illustrate the potential of physiologic measurement to direct rational and effective clinical management for individual patients.