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The extent and type of remyelination that occurred following demyelination induced by intraspinal injection of small volumes of lysolecithin was examined in 24 rabbits. Unlike the rat and cat following this procedure remyelination is not complete even after 6 months' survival and little Schwann cell invasion occurs. The cellular environment around remyelinated and persistently demyelinated axons differed. Remyelination was associated with a good astrocytic presence and removal of myelin debris, while persistently demyelinated axons were surrounded by myelin debris and a poor astrocytic presence. It was concluded that the environment around the demyelinated axon influences oligodendrocyte remyelination.