• 1
    Khan KS, Wojdyla D, Say L, Gulmezoglu AM, Van Look PF. WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review. Lancet 2006; 367:10661074.
  • 2
    Khunpradit S, Patumanond J, Tawichasri C. Risk indicators for cesarean section due to cephalopelvic disproportion in Lamphun hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2005; 88 (Suppl 2):S63S68.
  • 3
    Rush D. Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 72:212S240S.
  • 4
    Melah GS, Massa AA, Yahaya UR, Bukar M, Kizaya DD, El-Nafaty AU. Risk factors for obstetric fistulae in north-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 27:819823.
  • 5
    Muleta M. Socio-demographic profile and obstetric experience of fistula patients managed at the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital. Ethiopian Medical Journal 2004; 42:916.
  • 6
    Muleta M, Rasmussen S, Kiserud T. Obstetric fistula in 14,928 Ethiopian women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2010; 89:945951.
  • 7
    Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71:1371S1374S.
  • 8
    Villar J, Belizan JM. Same nutrient, different hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71:1375S1379S.
  • 9
    Villar J, Merialdi M, Gulmezoglu AM, Abalos E, Carroli G, Kulier R, et al. Nutritional interventions during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of maternal morbidity and preterm delivery: an overview of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133:1606S1625S.
  • 10
    Trumbo PR, Ellwood KC. Supplemental calcium and risk reduction of hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia: an evidence-based review by the US Food and Drug Administration. Nutrition Reviews 2007; 65:7887.
  • 11
    Stoltzfus RJ, Mullany L, Black RE. Iron deficiency anaemia. In: Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Eds. Majid Ezzati, Alan D. Lopez, Anthony Rodgers and Christopher J.L. Murray. Vol 1, 163–209. World Health Organization; Geneva, 2004.
  • 12
    Abu-Saad K, Fraser D. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Epidemiologic Reviews 2010; 32:525.
  • 13
    Nielsen JN, Gittelsohn J, Anliker J, O'Brien K. Interventions to improve diet and weight gain among pregnant adolescents and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006; 106:18251840.
  • 14
    Ronnberg AK, Nilsson K. Interventions during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain: a systematic review assessing current clinical evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. BJOG 2010; 117:13271334.
  • 15
    Briley C, Flanagan NL, Lewis N. In-home prenatal nutrition intervention increased dietary iron intakes and reduced low birthweight in low-income African-American women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102:984987.
  • 16
    Kafatos AG, Vlachonikolis IG, Codrington CA. Nutrition during pregnancy: the effects of an educational intervention program in Greece. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989; 50:970979.
  • 17
    Walker N, Fischer-Walker C, Bryce J, Bahl R, Cousens S. Standards for CHERG reviews of intervention effects on child survival. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 39 (Suppl 1):i21i31.
  • 18
    Atkins D, Best D, Briss P, Eccles M, Falck-Ytter Y, Flottorp S, et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 2004; 328:1490.
  • 19
    Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. West Sussex: Wiley Publishing, 2008; [updated 2009]. 5:02.
  • 20
    Abel R, Rajaratnam J, Kalaimani A, Kirubakaran S. Can iron status be improved in each of the three trimesters? A community-based study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54:490493.
  • 21
    Adhikari K, Liabsuetrakul T, Pradhan N. Effect of education and pill count on hemoglobin status during prenatal care in Nepalese women: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2009; 35:459466.
  • 22
    Ahrari M, Houser RF, Yassin S, Mogheez M, Hussaini Y. A positive deviance-based antenatal nutrition project improves birth-weight in upper Egypt. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 2006; 24:498507.
  • 23
    Belizan JM, Barros F, Langer A, Farnot U, Victora C, Villar J. Impact of health education during pregnancy on behavior and utilization of health resources. Latin American Network for Perinatal and Reproductive Research. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995; 173:894899.
  • 24
    el-Shabrawy Ali M. Effects of nutrition education on the dietary patterns of two socio-economic groups of pregnant females in Dakahlia Governorate (Egypt). The Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association 1971; 54:829840.
  • 25
    Gadallah M, Rady M, Salem B, Aly EM, Anwer W. The effect of nutritional intervention program on the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in rural areas of Belbis district-Sharkia Governorate-Egypt. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 2002; 77:261273.
  • 26
    Garg A, Kashyap S. Effect of counseling on nutritional status during pregnancy. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2006; 73:687692.
  • 27
    Ndiaye M, Siekmans K, Haddad S, Receveur O. Impact of a positive deviance approach to improve the effectiveness of an iron-supplementation program to control nutritional anemia among rural Senegalese pregnant women. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2009; 30:128136.
  • 28
    Sachdeva R, Mann SK. Impact of nutrition education and medical supervision on pregnancy outcome. Indian Pediatrics 1993; 30:13091314.
  • 29
    Sachdeva R, Mann SK. Impact of nutrition counselling and supplements on the mineral nutriture of rural pregnant women and their neonates. Indian Pediatrics 1994; 31:643649.
  • 30
    Senanayake HM, Premaratne SP, Palihawadana T, Wijeratne S. Simple educational intervention will improve the efficacy of routine antenatal iron supplementation. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2010; 36:646650.
  • 31
    Sun JD, Shao YF, Zhang PL, Li DZ, Gu LY, Guo QN. Evaluation of prenatal nutrition counseling: maternal nutrition status and infant birthweight. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 1990; 3:458465.
  • 32
    Aaltonen J, Ojala T, Laitinen K, Piirainen TJ, Poussa TA, Isolauri E. Evidence of infant blood pressure programming by maternal nutrition during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study. The Journal of Pediatrics 2008; 152:7984; 84 e71–72.
  • 33
    Anderson AS, Campbell DM, Shepherd R. The influence of dietary advice on nutrient intake during pregnancy. The British Journal of Nutrition 1995; 73:163177.
  • 34
    Asbee SM, Jenkins TR, Butler JR, White J, Elliot M, Rutledge A. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy through dietary and lifestyle counseling: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009; 113:305312.
  • 35
    Bechtel-Blackwell DA. Computer-assisted self-interview and nutrition education in pregnant teens. Clinical Nursing Research 2002; 11:450462.
  • 36
    Graham AV, Frank SH, Zyzanski SJ, Kitson GC, Reeb KG. A clinical trial to reduce the rate of low birth weight in an inner-city black population. Family Medicine 1992; 24:439446.
  • 37
    Hunt IF, Jacob M, Ostegard NJ, Masri G, Clark VA, Coulson AH. Effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976; 29:675684.
  • 38
    Laitinen K, Poussa T, Isolauri E. Probiotics and dietary counselling contribute to glucose regulation during and after pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Nutrition 2009; 101:16791687.
  • 39
    McLaughlin FJ, Altemeier WA, Christensen MJ, Sherrod KB, Dietrich MS, Stern DT. Randomized trial of comprehensive prenatal-care for low-income women – effect on infant birth-weight. Pediatrics 1992; 89:128132.
  • 40
    Olds DL, Henderson CR, Tatelbaum R, Chamberlin R. Improving the delivery of prenatal-care and outcomes of pregnancy – a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 1986; 77:1628.
  • 41
    Polley B, Wing R, Sims C. Randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnant women. International Journal of Obesity 2002; 26:14941502.
  • 42
    Sweeney C, Smith H, Foster JC, Place JC, Specht J, Kochenour NK, et al. Effects of a nutrition intervention program during pregnancy: maternal data phases 1 and 2. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 1985; 30:149158.
  • 43
    Piirainen T, Isolauri E, Lagstrom H, Laitinen K. Impact of dietary counselling on nutrient intake during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. The British Journal of Nutrition 2006; 96:10951104.
  • 44
    Long VA, Martin T, Janson-Sand C. The great beginnings program: impact of a nutrition curriculum on nutrition knowledge, diet quality, and birth outcomes in pregnant and parenting teens. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102:S86S89.
  • 45
    Smoke J, Grace MC. Effectiveness of prenatal care and education for pregnant adolescents: nurse-midwifery intervention and team approach. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 1988; 33:178184.
  • 46
    Ershoff DH, Aaronson NK, Danaher BG, Wasserman FW. Behavioral, health, and cost outcomes of an HMO-based prenatal health education program. Public Health Reports 1983; 98:536547.
  • 47
    Sultemeier A. An innovative approach to teaching prenatal nutrition. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1988; 5:247254.
  • 48
    Berry K, Wiehl DG. An experiment in diet education during pregnancy. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 1952; 30:119151.
  • 49
    Hankin ME, Symonds EM. Body weight, diet and pre-eclamptic toxaemia of pregnancy. The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 1962; 4:156160.
  • 50
    Villar J, Farnot U, Barros F, Victora C, Langer A, Belizan J. A randomized trial of psychosocial support during high-risk pregnancies. The Latin America Network for Perinatal and Reproductive Research. The New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327:12661271.
  • 51
    Daelhousen BB, Guthrie HA. A self-instruction nutrition program for pregnant women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1982; 81:407412.
  • 52
    Hunt DJ, Stoecker BJ, Hermann JR, Kopel BL, Williams GS, Claypool PL. Effects of nutrition education programs on anthropometric measurements and pregnancy outcomes of adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102:S100S102.
  • 53
    Kinnunen TI, Pasanen M, Aittasalo M, Fogelholm M, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Weiderpass E, et al. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy – a controlled trial in primary health care. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 61:884891.
  • 54
    Widga AC, Lewis NM. Defined, in-home, prenatal nutrition intervention for low-income women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99:10581062; quiz 1063–1054, 1175.
  • 55
    Fishbein M, Cappella J. The role of theory in developing effective health comunications. The Journal of Communication 2006; 56:S1S17.
  • 56
    Klemm RD. Reducing maternal anemia – why, what works, and what needs more work? Global Maternal Health Conference. 2010.
  • 57
    Galloway R, Dusch E, Elder L, Achadi E, Grajeda R, Hurtado E, et al. Women's perceptions of iron deficiency and anemia prevention and control in eight developing countries. Social Science and Medicine 2002; 55:529544.
  • 58
    Berti PR, Krasevec J, FitzGerald S. A review of the effectiveness of agriculture interventions in improving nutrition outcomes. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7:599609.
  • 59
    Dewey KG, Adu-Afarwuah S. Systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness of complementary feeding interventions in developing countries. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2008; 4 (Suppl 1):2485.
  • 60
    Connors M, Bisogni CA, Sobal J, Devine CM. Managing values in personal food systems. Appetite 2001; 36:189200.
  • 61
    Sobal J, Bisogni CA. Constructing food choice decisions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2009; 38 (Suppl 1):S37S46.
  • 62
    Chung SJ, Hoerr SL. Evaluation of a theory-based community intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intakes of women with limited incomes. Nutrition Research and Practice 2007; 1:4651.
  • 63
    Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Smith SP. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101:562566.
  • 64
    Henry H, Reimer K, Smith C, Reicks M. Associations of decisional balance, processes of change, and self-efficacy with stages of change for increased fruit and vegetable intake among low-income, African-American mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006; 106:841849.
  • 65
    Peterson KE, Sorensen G, Pearson M, Hebert JR, Gottlieb BR, McCormick MC. Design of an intervention addressing multiple levels of influence on dietary and activity patterns of low-income, postpartum women. Health Education Research 2002; 17:531540.
  • 66
    Abusabha R, Peacock J, Achterberg C. How to make nutrition education more meaningful through facilitated group discussions. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99:7276.
  • 67
    Rusness BA. Striving for empowerment through nutrition education. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1993; 93:7879.
  • 68
    Lawler P. The Keys to Adult Learning: Theories and Practical Strategies. Washington, DC: Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1991.
  • 69
    Contento IR. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008; 17:176179.
  • 70
    Favin M, Griffiths M. Using communication to improve nutrition: communication for behavior change in nutrition projects. A Guide for World Bank Task Managers. 1999.