• 1
    World Health Organization. Making Pregnancy Safer: Adolescent Pregnancy . 2011. Updated 2011.[last accessed October 2011].
  • 2
    The Population Council. Child marriage briefing: ethiopia. 2004.
  • 3
    United Nations, Ban K. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. New York: United Nations, 2010; Contract No.: Document Number.
  • 4
    Omran A. The Health Theme in Family Planning. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, 1971.
  • 5
    Taffa N, Obare F. Pregnancy and child health outcomes among adolescents in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health and Development 2004; 18:9095.
  • 6
    Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Sultan S, Glasziou P, Akl EA, Alonso-Coello P, et al. GRADE guidelines: 9. Rating up the quality of evidence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2011; 64:13111316.
  • 7
    Balshem H, Helfand M, Schunemann HJ, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, et al. GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2011; 64:401406.
  • 8
    Winfrey W, McKinnon R, Starer J. Methods used in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). BMC Public Health 2011; 11:S32S42.
  • 9
    Tsui AO, McDonald-Mosley R, Burke AE. Family planning and the burden of unintended pregnancies. Epidemiologic Reviews 2010; 32:152174.
  • 10
    Phipps MG, Sowers M. Defining early adolescent childbearing. American Journal of Public Health 2002; 92:125128.
  • 11
    Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermudez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2006; 295:18091823.
  • 12
    UNICEF, WHO. Iron Deficiency Anemia Assessment, Prevention, and Control: A Guide for Programme Managers . 2001.[last accessed 25 October 2011].
  • 13
    Nestel P, ISC. Adjusting Hemoglobin Values in Program Surveys . 2002.[last accessed 25 October 2011].
  • 14
    Walker N, Fischer-Walker C, Bryce J, Bahl R, Cousens S. Standards for CHERG reviews of intervention effects on child survival. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 39 (Suppl. 1):i21i31.
  • 15
    Atkins D, Best D, Briss PA, Eccles M, Falck-Ytter Y, Flottorp S, et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed) 2004; 328:1490.
  • 16
    Konje JC, Palmer A, Watson A, Hay DM, Imrie A, Ewings P. Early teenage pregnancies in Hull. BJOG 1992; 99:969973.
  • 17
    Scholl TO, Decker E, Karp RJ, Greene G, De Sales M. Early adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study of pregnancy outcome in young adolescents and mature women. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1984; 5:167171.
  • 18
    Hulka JF, Schaaf JT. Obstetrics in adolescents: a controlled study of deliveries by mothers 15 years of age and under. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1964; 23:678685.
  • 19
    Phupong V, Suebnukarn K. Obstetric outcomes in nulliparous young adolescents. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2007; 38:141145.
  • 20
    Ncayiyana DJ, ter Haar G. Pregnant adolescents in rural Transkei. Age per se does not confer high-risk status. South African Medical Journal 1989; 75:231232.
  • 21
    Conde-Agudelo A, Belizan JM, Lammers C. Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: cross-sectional study. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005; 192:342349.
  • 22
    de Vienne CM, Creveuil C, Dreyfus M. Does young maternal age increase the risk of adverse obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes: a cohort study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2009; 147:151156.
  • 23
    Lewis LN, Hickey M, Doherty DA, Skinner SR. How do pregnancy outcomes differ in teenage mothers? A Western Australian study. The Medical Journal of Australia 2009; 190:537541.
  • 24
    Haiek L, Lederman SA. The relationship between maternal weight for height and term birth weight in teens and adult women. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1989; 10:1622.
  • 25
    Perry RL, Mannino B, Hediger ML, Scholl TO. Pregnancy in early adolescence: are there obstetric risks? Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 1996; 5:333339.
  • 26
    Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, West KP, Christian P. The post-partum mid-upper arm circumference of adolescents is reduced by pregnancy in rural Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2010; 6:287295.
  • 27
    Loris P, Dewey KG, Poirier-Brode K. Weight gain and dietary intake of pregnant teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1985; 85:12961305.
  • 28
    Howie LD, Parker JD, Schoendorf KC. Excessive maternal weight gain patterns in adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2003; 103:16531657.
  • 29
    Hediger ML, Scholl TO, Schall JI, Krueger PM. Young maternal age and preterm labor. Annals of Epidemiology 1997; 7:400406.
  • 30
    Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Chavez MJ. Obstetrical and neonatal outcome in young adolescents of low socio-economic status: a case control study. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2005; 271:207211.
  • 31
    Machado CJ. Impact of maternal age on birth outcomes: a population-based study of primiparous Brazilian women in the city of Sao Paulo. Journal of Biosocial Science 2006; 38:523535.
  • 32
    Chen C, Tsai C, Sung F, Lee Y, Lu T, Li C, et al. Adverse birth outcomes among pregnancies of teen mothers: age-specific analysis of national data in Taiwan. Child: Care, Health & Development 2010; 36:232240.
  • 33
    Spellacy WN, Mahan CS, Cruz AC. The adolescent's first pregnancy: a controlled study. Southern Medical Journal 1978; 71:768771.
  • 34
    Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Salmon RW, Belsky DH, Ances IG. Association between low gynaecological age and preterm birth. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 1989; 3:357366.
  • 35
    Ketterlinus RD, Henderson SH, Lamb ME. Maternal age, sociodemographics, prenatal health and behavior: influences on neonatal risk status. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 1990; 11:423431.
  • 36
    Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Huang J, Johnson FE, Smith W, Ances IG. Young maternal age and parity. Influences on pregnancy outcome. Annals of Epidemiology 1992; 2:565575.
  • 37
    Satin AJ, Leveno KJ, Sherman ML, Reedy NJ, Lowe TW, McIntire DD. Maternal youth and pregnancy outcomes: middle school versus high school age groups compared with women beyond the teen years. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994; 171:184187.
  • 38
    Cooper LG, Leland NL, Alexander G. Effect of maternal age on birth outcomes among young adolescents. Social Biology 1995; 42:2235.
  • 39
    DuPlessis HM, Bell R, Richards T. Adolescent pregnancy: understanding the impact of age and race on outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health 1997; 20:187197.
  • 40
    Reichman NE, Pagnini DL. Maternal age and birth outcomes: data from New Jersey. Family Planning Perspectives 1997; 29:268272, 295.
  • 41
    Ekwo EE, Moawad A. Maternal age and preterm births in a black population. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2000; 14:145151.
  • 42
    Gilbert W, Jandial D, Field N, Bigelow P, Danielsen B. Birth outcomes in teenage pregnancies. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2004; 16:265270.
  • 43
    Chen XK, Wen SW, Fleming N, Demissie K, Rhoads GG, Walker M. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 36:368373.
  • 44
    Duenhoelter JH, Jimenez JM, Baumann G. Pregnancy performance of patients under fifteen years of age. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1975; 46:4952.
  • 45
    Abalkhail BA. Adolescent pregnancy: are there biological barriers for pregnancy outcomes? Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 1995; 70:609625.
  • 46
    Olausson PO, Cnattingius S, Haglund B. Does the increased risk of preterm delivery in teenagers persist in pregnancies after the teenage period? BJOG 2001; 108:721725.
  • 47
    Salihu HM, Luke S, Alio AP, Deutsch A, Marty PJ. The impact of obesity on spontaneous and medically indicated preterm birth among adolescent mothers. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2010; 282:127134.
  • 48
    Lubarsky SL, Schiff E, Friedman SA, Mercer BM, Sibai BM. Obstetric characteristics among nulliparas under age 15. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994; 84:365368.
  • 49
    Branum AM. Teen maternal age and very preterm birth of twins. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2006; 10:229233.
  • 50
    Robson S, Cameron CA, Roberts CL. Birth outcomes for teenage women in New South Wales, 1998–2003. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2006; 46:305310.
  • 51
    Stewart CP, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West KP Jr, et al. Preterm delivery but not intrauterine growth retardation is associated with young maternal age among primiparae in rural Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2007; 3:174185.
  • 52
    Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Belsky DH. Prenatal care and maternal health during adolescent pregnancy: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health 1994; 15:444456.
  • 53
    Pillai VK, Bandyopadhyay S. Age effects on infant mortality controlling for race: a meta-analytical study. Health Care for Women International 1997; 18:115126.
  • 54
    Olausson PO, Cnattingius S, Haglund B. Teenage pregnancies and risk of late fetal death and infant mortality. BJOG 1999; 106:116121.
  • 55
    Sharma V, Katz J, Mullany LC, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Young maternal age and the risk of neonatal mortality in rural Nepal. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine 2008; 162:828835.
  • 56
    Salihu HM, Sharma PP, Ekundayo OJ, Kristensen S, Badewa AP, Kirby RS, et al. Childhood pregnancy (10–14 years old) and risk of stillbirth in singletons and twins. Journal of Pediatrics 2006; 148:522526.
  • 57
    Wilson RE, Alio AP, Kirby RS, Salihu HM. Young maternal age and risk of intrapartum stillbirth. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2008; 278:231236.
  • 58
    Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West KP Jr. Miscarriage but not stillbirth rates are higher among younger nulliparas in rural Southern Nepal. Journal of Adolescent Health 2008; 42:587595.
  • 59
    Kramer KL, Lancaster JB. Teen motherhood in cross-cultural perspective. Annals of Human Biology 2010; 37:613628.
  • 60
    King JC. The risk of maternal nutritional depletion and poor outcomes increases in early or closely spaced pregnancies. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133:1732S1736S.
  • 61
    Thame M, Fletcher H, Baker T, Jahoor F. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 2010; 104:498502.
  • 62
    Cunnington AJ. What's so bad about teenage pregnancy? Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 2001; 27:3641.
  • 63
    Baker PN, Wheeler SJ, Sanders TA, Thomas JE, Hutchinson CJ, Clarke K, et al. A prospective study of micronutrient status in adolescent pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 89:11141124.
  • 64
    Da Costa AG, Mauad F, Ferreira AC, Spara P, Mauad FM. Uterine volume in adolescents. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 2004; 30:710.
  • 65
    Stevens-Simon C, Barrett J, McGregor JA, French J, Persutte W. Short cervix: a cause of preterm delivery in young adolescents? The Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 2000; 9:342347.
  • 66
    McAnarney ER, Hendee WR. Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences. JAMA 1989; 262:7477.
  • 67
    Fichorova RN. Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 2009; 83:185189.
  • 68
    Lata I, Pradeep Y, Sujata, Jain A. Estimation of the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections and its consequences on maternal/fetal outcome in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2010; 35:285289.
  • 69
    Mann JR, McDermott S, Gill T. Sexually transmitted infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth in South Carolina women insured by Medicaid. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2010; 23:563568.
  • 70
    Chen YK, Chen SF, Li HC, Lin HC. No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with urinary tract infections: a nationwide population-based study. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2010; 89:882888.
  • 71
    Stevens-Simon C, Beach RK, McGregor JA. Does incomplete growth and development predispose teenagers to preterm delivery? A template for research. Journal of Perinatology 2002; 22:315323.