This work was supported in part by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (grant WB 93–443).
Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria
Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006
Volume 28, Issue 10, pages 497–506, October 2006
How to Cite
HARTGERS, F. C. and YAZDANBAKHSH, M. (2006), Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria. Parasite Immunology, 28: 497–506. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00901.x
Conflict of interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.
- Issue published online: 6 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006
- Received: 3 April 2006 Accepted for publication: 3 May 2006
- immune responses;
Chronic helminth infections induce strong type 2 and regulatory immune responses and are known to influence immune activity to other antigens such as allergens and vaccines. Since malaria and helminth infections often coincide geographically in the same tropical regions, the question arises whether helminth infections modulate the immune responses towards the malaria parasite and affect its course of disease. Here, we will review studies on co-infections in both animal models and in human populations, and discuss the changes in the immune system seen. Furthermore, the implications of helminth infection for the efficacy of malaria vaccines will be discussed.