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Keywords:

  • co-infection;
  • helminths;
  • immune responses;
  • malaria

SUMMARY

Chronic helminth infections induce strong type 2 and regulatory immune responses and are known to influence immune activity to other antigens such as allergens and vaccines. Since malaria and helminth infections often coincide geographically in the same tropical regions, the question arises whether helminth infections modulate the immune responses towards the malaria parasite and affect its course of disease. Here, we will review studies on co-infections in both animal models and in human populations, and discuss the changes in the immune system seen. Furthermore, the implications of helminth infection for the efficacy of malaria vaccines will be discussed.