SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Lucey DR, Clerici M & Shearer GM. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 1996; 9: 542562.
  • 2
    Maizels RM & Yazdanbakhsh M. Immune regulation by helminth parasites: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3: 733744.
  • 3
    Infante-Duarte C & Kamradt T. Th1/Th2 balance in infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol 1999; 21: 317338.
  • 4
    Loukas A & Prociv P. Immune responses in hookworm infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14: 689703.
  • 5
    Yazdanbakhsh M, Van Den Biggelaar A & Maizels RM. Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth infections and reduced allergic disease. Trends Immunol 2001; 22: 372377.
  • 6
    Macdonald AS, Loke P, Martynoga R, Dransfield I & Allen JE. Cytokine-dependent inflammatory cell recruitment patterns in the peritoneal cavity of mice exposed to the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berlin) 2003; 192: 3340.
  • 7
    Boitelle A, Scales HE, Di Lorenzo C et al. Investigating the impact of helminth products on immune responsiveness using a TCR transgenic adoptive transfer system. J Immunol 2003; 171: 447454.
  • 8
    Coffman RL & Von Der Weid T. Multiple pathways for the initiation of T helper 2 (Th2) responses. J Exp Med 1997; 185: 373375.
  • 9
    O’Garra A. Commitment factors for T helper cells. Curr Biol 2000; 10: R492R494.
  • 10
    Rincón M, Anguita J, Nakamura T, Fikrig E & Flavell RA. IL-6 directs the differentiation of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 1997; 185: 461469.
  • 11
    Tawill S, Le Goff L, Ali F, Blaxter M & Allen JE. Both free-living and parasitic nematodes induce a characteristic Th2 response that is dependent on the presence of intact glycans. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 398407.
  • 12
    Mulcahy G, O’Neill S, Donnelly S & Dalton JP. Helminths at mucosal barriers interaction with the immune system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56: 853868.
  • 13
    Del Pozo V, De Andres B, Martin E et al. Eosinophil as antigen-presenting cell: activation of T cell clones and T cell hybridoma by eosinophils after antigen processing. Eur J Immunol 1992; 22: 19191925.
  • 14
    Sabin EA, Araujo MI, Carvalho EM & Pearce EJ. Impairment of tetanus toxoid-specific Th1-like immune responses in humans infected with Schistosoma mansoni. J Infect Dis 1996; 173: 269272.
  • 15
    Hida S, Tadachi M, Saito T & Taki S. Negative control of basophil expansion by IRF-2 critical for the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance. Blood 2005; 106: 20112017.
  • 16
    Borkow G, Leng Q, Weisman Z et al. Chronic immune activation associated with intestinal helminth infections results in impaired signal transduction and anergy. J Clin Invest 2000; 106: 10531060.
  • 17
    Borkow G & Bentwich Z. Chronic immune activation associated with chronic helminthic and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections: Role of hyporesponsiveness and anergy. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17: 10121030.
  • 18
    King CL. Transmission intensity and human immune responses to lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol 2001; 23: 363371.
  • 19
    Nutman TB & Kumaraswami V. Regulation of the immune response in lymphatic filariasis: perspectives on acute and chronic infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in South India. Parasite Immunol 2001; 23: 389399.
  • 20
    Yazdanbakhsh M. Common features of T cell reactivity in persistent helminth infections: lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. Immunol Lett 1999; 65: 109115.
  • 21
    Gallin M, Edmonds K, Ellner JJ et al. Cell-mediated immune responses in human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. J Immunol 1988; 140: 19992007.
  • 22
    Patriarca PA, Wright PF & John TJ. Factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine in developing countries: review. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13: 926939.
  • 23
    Muniz-Junqueira MI, Tavares-Neto J, Prata A & Tosta CE. Antibody response to Salmonella typhi in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 1996; 29: 441445.
  • 24
    Haseeb MA & Craig JP. Suppression of the immune response to diphtheria toxoid in murine schistosomiasis. Vaccine 1997; 15: 4550.
  • 25
    Elias D, Wolday D, Akuffo H, Petros B, Bronner U & Britton S. Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 123: 219225.
  • 26
    Cooper PJ, Chico M, Sandoval C et al. Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with suppression of the interleukin-2 response to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit following vaccination with the live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. Infect Immun 2001; 69: 15741580.
  • 27
    Loke P, Macdonald AS, Robb A, Maizels RM & Allen JE. Alternatively activated macrophages induced by nematode infection inhibit proliferation via cell-to-cell contact. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30: 26692678.
  • 28
    Elliott DE, Summers RW & Weinstock JV. Helminths and the modulation of mucosal inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2005; 21: 5158.
  • 29
    Atochina O, Daly-Engel T, Piskorska D, McGuire E & Harn DA. A Schistosome-expressed immunomodulatory glycoconjugate expands peritoneal Gr1(+) macrophages that suppress naive CD4(+) T cell proliferation via an IFN-gamma and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 2001; 167: 42934302.
  • 30
    Smith P, Walsh CM, Mangan NE et al. Regulation of programmed death ligand 1 on macrophages. J Immunol 2004; 173: 12401248.
  • 31
    Knopf PM. Immunomodulation and allergy. Allergy Asthma Proc 2000; 21: 215220.
  • 32
    Araujo MI, Lopes AA, Medeiros M et al. Inverse association between skin response to aeroallergens and Schistosoma mansoni infection. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000; 123: 145148.
  • 33
    Lynch NR, Hagel IA, Palenque ME et al. Relationship between helminth infection and IgE response in atopic and nonatopic children in a tropical environment. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101: 217221.
  • 34
    Lynch NR, Hagel IA, Perez M, Di Prisco MC, Lopez R & Alvarez N. Effect of anthelminthic treatment on the allergic reactivity of children in a tropical slum. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 92: 404411.
  • 35
    Van Den Biggelaar AH, Rodrigues LC, Van Ree R et al. Long-term treatment of intestinal helminths increases mite skin-test reactivity in Gabonese school children. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 892900.
  • 36
    Palmer J, Celedón JCM, Weiss ST, Wang B, Fang Z & Xu X. Ascaris lumbricoides infection is associated with increased risk of childhood asthma and atopy in rural China. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 14891493.
  • 37
    Lynch NR, Palenque M, Hagel I & Di Prisco MC. Clinical improvement of asthma after anthelminthic treatment in a tropical situation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 156: 5054.
  • 38
    Hagel I, Lynch NR, Perez M, Di Prisco MC, Lopez R & Rojas E. Modulation of the allergic reactivity of slum children by helminth infection. Parasite Immunol 1993; 15: 311315.
  • 39
    Godfrey RC & Gradidge CF. Allergic sensitisation of human lung fragments prevented by saturation of IgE binding sites. Nature; 976: 484486.
  • 40
    Cooper PJ, Mancero T, Espinel M et al. Early human infection with Onchocerca volvulus is associated with an enhanced parasite-specific cellular immune response. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 16621668.
  • 41
    Paterson JC, Garside P, Kennedy MW & Lawrence CE. Modulation of a heterologous immune response by the products of Ascaris suum. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 60586067.
  • 42
    Flores-Villanueva PO, Zheng XX, Strom TB & Stadecker MJ. Recombinant IL-10 and IL-10/Fc treatment down-regulate egg antigen-specific delayed hypersensitivity reactions and egg granuloma formation in schistosomiasis. J Immunol 1996; 156: 33153320.
  • 43
    Hoffmann KF, Cheever AW & Wynn TA. IL-10 and the dangers of immune polarization: excessive type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses induce distinct forms of lethal immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis. J Immunol 2000; 164: 64066416.
  • 44
    Sher A, Gazzinelli RT, Oswald IP et al. Role of T-cell derived cytokines in the downregulation of immune responses in parasitic and retroviral infection. Immunol Rev 1992; 127: 183204.
  • 45
    Doetze A, Satoguina J, Burchard G et al. Antigen-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness in a chronic human helminth infection is mediated by T(h)3/T(r)1-type cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta but not by a T(h)1 to T(h)2 shift. Int Immunol 2000; 12: 623630.
  • 46
    Weiner HL. Induction and mechanism of action of transforming growth factor-beta secreting Th3 regulatory cells. Immunol Rev 2001; 182: 207214.
  • 47
    Hoerauf A & Brattig N. Resistance and susceptibility in human onchocerciasis-beyond Th1 vs. Th2. Trends Parasitol 2002; 18: 2531.
  • 48
    Wilson MS, Taylor MD, Balic A, Finney CAM, Lamb JR & Maizels RM. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 11991212.
  • 49
    Fontenot JD, Gavin MA & Rudensky AY. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 330336.
  • 50
    Moore KW, De Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL & O’Garra A. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 2001; 19: 683765.
  • 51
    Elias D, Akuffo H, Pawlowski A, Haile M, Schon T & Britton S. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces the protective efficacy of BCG vaccination against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Vaccine 2005; 23: 13261334.
  • 52
    Elias D, Akuffo H, Thors C, Pawlowski A & Britton S. Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice. Clin Exp Immunol 2005; 139: 398404.
  • 53
    Rougemont A, Boisson-Pontal ME, Pontal PG, Gridel F & Sangare S. Tuberculin skin tests and B.C.G. vaccination in hyperendemic area of onchocerciasis. Lancet 1977; 1: 309.
  • 54
    Malhotra I, Mungai P, Wamachi A et al. Helminth- and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced immunity in children sensitized in utero to filariasis and schistosomiasis. J Immunol 1999; 162: 68436848.
  • 55
    Cooper PJ, Espinel I, Paredes W, Guderian RH & Nutman TB. Impaired tetanus-specific cellular and humoral responses following tetanus vaccination in human onchocerciasis: a possible role for interleukin-10. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 11331138.
  • 56
    Borkow G & Bentwich Z. Eradication of helminthic infections may be essential for successful vaccination against HIV and tuberculosis. Bull WHO 2000; 78: 13681369.
  • 57
    Brown M, Mawa PA, Joseph S et al. Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection increases helminth-specific type 2 cytokine responses and HIV-1 loads in coinfected Ugandan adults. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 16481657.
  • 58
    Joseph S, Jones FM, Walter K et al. Increases in human T helper 2 cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni worm and worm tegument antigens are specifically induced by treatment with praziquantel. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 835842.
  • 59
    Satti M, Cahen P, Skov P et al. Changes in IgE- and antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel. BMC Immunol 2004; 5: 6.
  • 60
    Elliott AM, Namujju PB, Mawa PA et al. Mother and Baby study team. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization. BMC Infect Dis 2005; 5: 115.
  • 61
    Gupta M, Arora KL, Mithal S & Tandon BN. Effect of periodic deworming on nutritional status of Ascaris-infested preschool children receiving supplementary food. Lancet 1977; 2: 108110.
  • 62
    Bundy DA & De Silva NR. Can we deworm this wormy world? Br Med Bull 1998; 54: 421432.
  • 63
    Allen HE, Crompton DWT, De Silva N, Loverde PT & Olds GR. New policies for using anthelminthics in high risk groups. Trends Parasitol 2002; 18: 381382.
  • 64
    Beasley NM, Tomkins AM, Hall A et al. The impact of population level deworming on the haemoglobin levels of school children in Tanga, Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 1999; 4: 744750.
  • 65
    Actor JK, Shirai M, Kullberg MC, Buller RM, Sher A & Berzofsky JA. Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 948952.
  • 66
    Edwards MJ, Buchatska O, Ashton M, Montoya M, Bickle QD & Borrow P. Reciprocal immunomodulation in a schistosome and hepatotropic virus coinfection model. J Immunol 2005; 175: 62756285.
  • 67
    Seeff LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997; 26: 21S28S.
  • 68
    Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997; 26: 62S65S.
  • 69
    Abdel Aziz F, Habib M, Mohamed M et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in a community in the Nile Delta: population description and HCV prevalence. Hepatology 2000; 32: 111115.
  • 70
    Habib M, Mohamed MK, Abdel-Aziz F et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in a community in the Nile Delta: risk factors for seropositivity. Hepatology 2001; 33: 248253.
  • 71
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Govindarajan S et al. Lack of protective immunity against reinfection with hepatitis C virus. Science 1992; 258: 135140.
  • 72
    Lauer GM & Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 4152.
  • 73
    Shoukry NH, Cawthon AG & Walker CM. Cell-mediated immunity and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection. Annu Rev Microbiol 2004; 58: 391424.
  • 74
    Lechner F, Wong DK, Dunbar PR et al. Analysis of successful immune responses in persons infected with hepatitis C virus. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 14991512.
  • 75
    Thimme R, Bukh J, Spangenberg HC et al. Viral and immunological determinants of hepatitis C virus clearance, persistence, and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 1566115668.
  • 76
    Cooper S, Erickson AL, Adams EJ et al. Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus. Immunity 1999; 10: 439449.
  • 77
    Gerlach T, Diepolder H, Jung M et al. Recurrence of hepatitis C virus after loss of virus specific CD4+ T-cell response in acute hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 993941.
  • 78
    Kamal SM, Rasenack JW, Bianchi L et al. Acute hepatitis C without and with schistosomiasis: Correlation with hepatitis C-specific CD4+ T-cell and cytokine response. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 646656.
  • 79
    Wedemeyer H, He XS, Nascimbeni M et al. Impaired effector function of hepatitis C virus specific CD8+ T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Immunol 2002; 169: 34473458.
  • 80
    Appay V, Dunbar PR, Callan M et al. Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections. Nat Med 2002; 8: 379385.
  • 81
    Urbani S, Boni C, Missale G et al. Virus-specific CD8+ lymphocytes share the same effector-memory phenotype but exhibit functional differences in acute hepatitis B and C. J Virol 2002; 76: 1242312434.
  • 82
    Gruener NH, Lechner F, Jung MC et al. Sustained dysfunction of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes after infection with hepatitis C virus. J Virol 2001; 75: 55505558.
  • 83
    Accapezzato D, Francavilla V, Paroli M et al. Hepatic expansion of a virus-specific regulatory CD8+ T cell population in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Invest 2004; 113: 963972.
  • 84
    Chitsulo L, Engels D, Montresor A & Savioli L. The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Trop 2000; 77: 4151.
  • 85
    El-Khoby T, Galal N, Fenwick A et al. The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: summary of findings in nine governorates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000; 62: 8899.
  • 86
    Capron A & Dessaint JP. Immunologic aspects of schistosomiasis. Ann Rev Med 1992; 43: 209218.
  • 87
    Stavitsky AB. Regulation of granulomatous inflammation in experimental models of schistosomiasis. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 112.
  • 88
    Sabin EA & Pearce EJ. Early IL-4 production by non-CD4+ cells at the site of antigen deposition predicts the development of a T helper 2 cell response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs. J Immunol 1995; 155: 48444855.
  • 89
    Pearce EJ, Caspar P, Grzych JM, Lewis FA & Sher A. Downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. J Exp Med 1991; 173: 159166.
  • 90
    Cervi L, Macdonald AS, Kane C, Dzierszinski F & Pearce EJ. Cutting edge: dendritic cells copulsed with microbial and helminth antigens undergo modified maturation, segregate the antigens to distinct intracellular compartments, and concurrently induce microbe-specific Th1 and helminth-specific Th2 responses. J Immunol 2004; 172: 20162020.
  • 91
    Kamal SM, Madwar MA, Bianchi L et al. Clinical, virological and histopathological features: long-term follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Liver 2000; 20: 281289.
  • 92
    Angelico M, Renganathan E, Gandin C et al. Chronic liver disease in Alexandria governorate, Egypt: contribution of schistosomiasis and hepatitis virus infections. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 236243.
  • 93
    Pereira LM, Melo MC, Saleh MG, Massarolo P, Koskinas J & Domingues AL. et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in Schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil. J Med Virol 1995; 45: 42342.
  • 94
    Darwish MA, Faris R, Darwish N et al. Hepatitis c and cirrhotic liver disease in the Nile delta of Egypt: a community-based study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001; 64: 147153.
  • 95
    Kamal SM, Madwar MA, Peters T, Fawzy R & Rasenack J. Interferon therapy in patients with hepatitis C and schistosomiasis. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 172174.
  • 96
    Kamal SM, Bianchi L, Al Tawil A et al. Specific cellular immune response and cytokine patterns in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and Schistosoma mansoni. J Infect Dis 2001; 184: 972982.
  • 97
    Farid A, Al-Sherbiny M, Osman A et al. Schistosoma infection inhibits cellular immune responses to core HCV peptides. Parasite Immunol 2005; 27: 189196.
  • 98
    Elrefaei M, El-Sheikh N, Kamal K & Cao H. HCV-specific CD27- CD28- memory T cells are depleted in hepatitis C virus and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection. Immunology 2003; 110: 513518.
  • 99
    Kamal SM, Graham CS, He Q et al. Kinetics of intrahepatic hepatitis C virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses in patients coinfected with hepatitis c virus and Schistosoma mansoni: relation to liver fibrosis progression. J Infect Dis 2003; 189: 11401150.
  • 100
    Chisari FV & Ferrari C. Hepatitis B virus immunopathology. Springer Semin Immunopathol 1995; 17: 261281.
  • 101
    Guidotti LG & Chisari FV. Cytokine-induced viral purging – role in viral pathogenesis. Curr Opin Microbiol 1999; 2: 388391.
  • 102
    McClary H, Koch R, Chisari FV & Guidotti LG. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication during Schistosoma mansoni infection in transgenic mice. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 289294.
  • 103
    Guidotti LG, McClary H, Loudis JM & Chisari FV. Nitric oxide inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in the livers of transgenic mice. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 12471252.
  • 104
    Guidotti LG, Morris A, Mendez H et al. Interferon-regulated pathways that control hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice. J Virol 2002; 76: 26172621.
  • 105
    Guidotti LG, Rochford R, Chung L, Shapiro M, Purcell R & Chisari FV. Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. Science 1999; 284: 825829.
  • 106
    Kamel MA, Miller FD, El Masry AG et al. The epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Egypt. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1994; 88: 501509.
  • 107
    Pereira LM, Melo MC, Lacerda C et al. Hepatitis B virus infection in Schistosomiasis mansoni. J Med Virol 1994; 42: 203206.
  • 108
    Madwar MA, El Tahawy M & Strickland GT. The relationship between uncomplicated schistosomiasis and hepatitis B infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1989; 83: 233236.
  • 109
    Maruyama T, Schödel F, Iino S et al. Distinguishing between acute and symptomatic chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 10061015.
  • 110
    Bertoletti A, D’Elios MM, Boni C et al. Different cytokine profiles of intrahepatic T cells in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 193199.
  • 111
    Jung MC, Hartmann B, Gerlach JT et al. Virus-specific lymphokine production differs quantitatively but not qualitatively in acute and chronic hepatitis B infection. Virology 1999; 261: 165172.
  • 112
    Bassily S, Hyams KC, El-Ghorab NM, Mansour MM, El-Masry NA & Dunn MA. Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 36: 549553.
  • 113
    Bassily S, Strickland GT, Abdel-Wahab MF et al. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination in primary school children from a village endemic for Schistosoma mansoni. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 265268.
  • 114
    Ghaffar YA, Kamel M, Abdel Wahab MF, Dorgham LS, Saleh MS & El Deeb AS. Hepatitis B vaccination in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni: correlation with ultrasonographic data. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1990; 43: 516519.
  • 115
    Song WJ, Cheng YL, Liu LZ et al. Impact of chronic schistosomiasis japonica on the protective immunity induced by vaccine against hepatitis B virus. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 2005; 23: 163165.
  • 116
    UNAIDS. United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 117
    Pantaleo G & Fauci AS. Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Annu Rev Microbiol 1996; 50: 825854.
  • 118
    Graziosi C, Soudeyns H, Rizzardi GP, Bart PA, Chapuis A & Pantaleo G. Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir 1998; 14 (Suppl. 2): S135S142.
  • 119
    Silvestri G & Feinberg MB. Turnover of lymphocytes and conceptual paradigms in HIV infection. Clin Invest 2003; 112: 821824.
  • 120
    Hazenberg MD, Hamann D, Schuitemaker H & Miedema F. T cell depletion in HIV-1 infection: how CD4+ T cells go out of stock. Nat Immunol 2000; 1: 285289.
  • 121
    Grossman Z, Meier-Schellersheim M, Sousa AE, Victorino RM & Paul WE. CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV infection: are we closer to understanding the cause? Nat Med 2002; 8: 319323.
  • 122
    Leng Q, Bentwich Z, Magen E, Kalinkovich A & Borkow G. CTLA-4 upregulation during HIV infection: association with anergy and possible target for therapeutic intervention. AIDS 2002; 16: 519529.
  • 123
    Leng Q, Borkow G, Weisman Z, Stein M, Kalinkovich A & Bentwich Z. Immune activation correlates better than HIV plasma viral load with CD4 T-cell decline during HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 27: 389397.
  • 124
    Douek DC, Picler LJ & Koup RA. T cell dynamics in HIV infection. Annu Rev Immunol 2003; 21: 265304.
  • 125
    Brunner MC, Chambers CA, Chan FK, Hanke J, Winoto A & Allison JP. CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of early events of T cell proliferation. J Immunol 1999; 162: 58135820.
  • 126
    Hogan CM & Hammer SM. Host determinants in HIV infection and disease. 1. Cellular and humoral immune responses. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 761776.
  • 127
    Dalod M, Dupuis M, Deschemin JC et al. Broad, intense anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ex vivo CD8 (+) responses in HIV type 1-infected patients: comparison with anti-Epstein-Barr virus responses and changes during antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 1999; 73: 71087116.
  • 128
    Ogg GS, Jin X, Bonhoeffer S et al. Quantitation of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and plasma load of viral RNA. Science 1998; 279: 21032106.
  • 129
    Schmitz JE, Kuroda MJ, Santra S et al. Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes. Science 1999; 283: 857860.
  • 130
    Jin X, Bauer DE, Tuttleton SE et al. Dramatic rise in plasma viremia after CD8+ T cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. J Exp Med 1999; 189: 991998.
  • 131
    Plummer FA, Ball TB, Kimani J & Fowke KR. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among highly exposed sex workers in Nairobi: what mediates protection and why does it develop? Immunol Lett 1999; 66: 2734.
  • 132
    N’Galy B, Ryder RW, Bila K et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among employees in an African hospital. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 11231127.
  • 133
    Colebunders R, Ryder R, Francis H et al. Seroconversion rate, mortality, and clinical manifestations associated with the receipt of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected blood transfusion in Kinshasa, Zaire. J Infect Dis 1991; 164: 450456.
  • 134
    Whittle H, Egboga A, Todd J et al. Clinical and laboratory predictors of survival in Gambian patients with symptomatic HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection. AIDS 1992; 6: 685689.
  • 135
    Mann JM, Colebunders RL, Khonde N et al. Natural-history of human immunodeficiency virus-infection in Zaire. Lancet 1986; 2: 707709.
  • 136
    Marlink R, Kanki P, Thior I et al. Reduced rate of disease development after HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-1. Science 1994; 265: 15871590.
  • 137
    Morgan D & Whitworth J. The natural history of HIV-1 infection in Africa. Nat Med 2001; 7: 143145.128.
  • 138
    Shapira-Nahor O, Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z et al. Increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronically immune-activated individuals. AIDS 1998; 12: 17311733.
  • 139
    Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z, Leng Q et al. Increased CCR5 expression with decreased β-chemokine secretion in Ethiopians: relevance to AIDS in Africa. J Hum Virol 1999; 2: 283289.
  • 140
    Gopinath R, Ostrowski M, Justement SJ, Fauci AS & Nutman TB. Filarial infections increase susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. J Infect Dis 2000; 182: 18041808.
  • 141
    Moonis M, Lee B, Bailer RT, Luo Q & Montaner LJ. CCR5 and CXCR4 expression correlated with X4 and R5 HIV-1 infection yet not sustained replication in Th1 and Th2 cells. AIDS 2001; 15: 19411949.
  • 142
    Secor WE, Shah A, Mwinzi PM, Ndenga BA, Watta CO & Karanja DM. Increased density of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on the surfaces of CD4+ T cells and monocytes of patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection. Infect Immun 2003; 71: 66686671.
  • 143
    Wang J, Crawford K, Yuan M, Wang H, Gorry PR & Gabuzda D. Regulation of CC chemokine receptor 5 and CD4 expression and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human macrophage and microglia by T helper type 2 cytokines. J Exp Med 2002; 185: 885897.
  • 144
    Steel C & Nutman TB. CTLA-4 in filarial infections: implications for a role in diminished T cell reactivity. J Immunol 2003; 170: 19301938.
  • 145
    Riley JL, Schlienger K, Blair BJ et al. Modulation of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 costimulatory molecule. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 19871997.
  • 146
    Maggi E, Mazzetti M, Ravina A et al. Ability of HIV to promote a TH1 to TH0 shift and to replicate preferentially in TH2 and TH0 cells. Science 1994; 265: 244248.
  • 147
    Clerici M & Shearer GM. The TH1-TH2 hypothesis of HIV infection: new insights. Immunol Today 2001; 12: 575581.
  • 148
    Wolday D, Mayaan S, Mariam ZG et al. Treatment of intestinal worms is associated with decreased HIV plasma viral load. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 31: 5662.
  • 149
    Secor WE, Karanja DMS & Colley DG. Interactions between schistosomiasis and human immunodeficiency virus in Western Kenya. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99 (Suppl. I): 9395.
  • 150
    Kallestrup P, Zinyama R, Gomo E et al. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: Effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 19561961.
  • 151
    Lawn SD, Karanja DM, Mwinzia P et al. The effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on blood plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration in coinfected individuals. AIDS 2000; 14: 24372443.
  • 152
    Modjarrad K, Zulu I, Redden DT et al. Treatment of intestinal helminths does not reduce plasma concentrations of HIV-1 RNA in coinfected Zambian adults. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 12771283.
  • 153
    Chenine AL, Buckley KA, Li PL et al. Schistosoma mansoni infection promotes SHIV clade C replication in rhesus macaques. AIDS 2005; 19: 17931797.
  • 154
    Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 921929.
  • 155
    Elliott AM, Mawa PA, Joseph S et al. Associations between helminth infection and CD4+ T cell count, viral load and cytokine responses in HIV-1infected Ugandan adults. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003; 97: 103108.
  • 156
    Brown M, Kizza M, Watera C et al. Helminth infection is not associated with faster progression of HIV disease in coinfected adults in Uganda. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 18691879.
  • 157
    Beyers AD, Van Rie A, Adams J, Fenhalls G, Gie R & Beyers N. Signals that regulate the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novartis Found Symp 1998; 217: 145157.
  • 158
    Adams JF, Scholvinck EH, Gie RP, Potter PC, Beyers N & Beyers AD. Decline in total serum IgE after treatment for tuberculosis. Lancet 1999; 353: 20302033.
  • 159
    Elliott AM, Hurst TJ, Balyeku MN et al. The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-infected and uninfected adults in Uganda: application of a whole blood cytokine assay in an epidemiological study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999; 3: 239247.
  • 160
    Elliott AM, Kyosiimire J, Quigley MA et al. Eosinophilia and progression to active tuberculosis in HIV-1-infected Ugandans. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003; 97: 477480.
  • 161
    Ayash-Rashkovsky M, Weisman Z, Diveley J, Moss RB, Bentwich Z & Borkow G. Generation of Th1 immune responses to inactivated, gp120-depleted HIV-1 in mice with a dominant Th2 biased immune profile via immunostimulatory oligonucleotides-relevance to AIDS vaccines in developing countries. Vaccine 2002; 20: 26842692.
  • 162
    Ayash-Rashkovsky M, Weisman Z, Zlotnikov S, Raz E, Bentwich Z & Borkow G. Induction of antigen-specific Th1-biased immune responses by plasmid DNA in Schistosoma-infected mice with a preexistent dominant Th2 immune profile. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 282: 11691176.
  • 163
    Burton DR & Moore JP. Why do we not have an HIV vaccine and how can we make one? Nat Med 1998; 4: 495498.
  • 164
    Heilman CA & Baltimore D. HIV vaccines: where are we going? Nat Med 1998; 4: 532534.