SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Maizels RM & Yazdanbakhsh M. Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3: 733744.
  • 2
    Maizels RM, Balic A, Gomez-Escobar N, Nair M, Taylor MD & Allen JE. Helminth parasites – masters of regulation. Immunol Rev 2004; 201: 89116.
  • 3
    Wilson MS & Maizels RM. Regulatory T cells induced by parasites and the modulation of allergic responses. Chem Immunol Allergy 2006; 90: 176195.
  • 4
    Loke P, Nair MG, Parkinson J, Guiliano D, Blaxter M & Allen JE. IL-4 dependent alternatively-activated macrophages have a distinctive in vivo gene expression phenotype. BMC Immunol 2002; 3: 7.
  • 5
    Rodriguez-Sosa M, Satoskar AR, Calderon R, et al . Chronic helminth infection induces alternatively activated macrophages expressing high levels of CCR5 with low interleukin-12 production and Th2-biasing ability. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 36563664.
  • 6
    Gordon S. Alternative activation of macrophages. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3: 2335.
  • 7
    Noel W, Raes G, Hassanzadeh GG, De Baetselier P & Beschin A. Alternatively activated macrophages during parasite infections. Trends Parasitol 2004; 20: 126133.
  • 8
    Sica A & Bronte V. Altered macrophage differentiation and immune dysfunction in tumor development. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 11551166.
  • 9
    Mills CD, Kincaid K, Alt JM, Heilman MJ & Hill AM. M-1/M-2 macrophages and the Th1/Th2 paradigm. J Immunol 2000; 164: 61666173.
  • 10
    Mantovani A, Sica A, Sozzani S, Allavena P, Vecchi A & Locati M. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol 2004; 25: 677686.
  • 11
    William GHC & Brombacher F. Alternatively activated macrophages in experimental parasitic infections. In TerrazasLI (ed.): Advances in the Immunobiology of Parasitic Diseases. Research Sign Post, India, 2007; in press.
  • 12
    Munder M, Eichmann K & Modolell M. Alternative metabolic states in murine macrophages reflected by the nitric oxide synthase/arginase balance: competitive regulation by CD4+ T cells correlates with Th1/Th2 phenotype. J Immunol 1998; 160: 53475354.
  • 13
    Gordon S & Taylor PR. Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5: 953964.
  • 14
    Ghassabeh GH, De Baetselier P, Brys L, et al . Identification of a common gene signature for type II cytokine-associated myeloid cells elicited in vivo in different pathologic conditions. Blood 2006; 108: 575583.
  • 15
    MacDonald AS, Maizels RM, Lawrence RA, Dransfield I & Allen JE. Requirement for in vivo production of IL-4, but not IL-10, in the induction of proliferative suppression by filarial parasites. J Immunol 1998; 160: 13041312.
  • 16
    Loke P, MacDonald AS & Allen JE. Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30: 11271135.
  • 17
    Loke P, MacDonald AS, Robb A, Maizels RM & Allen JE. Alternatively activated macrophages induced by nematode infection inhibit proliferation via cell-to-cell contact. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30: 26692678.
  • 18
    Nair MG, Cochrane DW & Allen JE. Macrophages in chronic type 2 inflammation have a novel phenotype characterized by the abundant expression of Ym1 and Fizz1 that can be partly replicated in vitro. Immunol Lett 2003; 85: 173180.
  • 19
    Nair MG, Gallagher IJ, Taylor MD, et al . Chitinase and Fizz family members are a generalized feature of nematode infection with selective upregulation of Ym1 and Fizz1 by antigen-presenting cells. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 385394.
  • 20
    Taylor MD, Harris A, Nair MG, Maizels RM & Allen JE. F4/80+ alternatively activated macrophages control CD4+ T cell hyporesponsiveness at sites peripheral to filarial infection. J Immunol 2006; 176: 69186927.
  • 21
    Gause WC, Urban JF Jr & Stadecker MJ. The immune response to parasitic helminths: insights from murine models. Trends Immunol 2003; 24: 269277.
  • 22
    Pesce J, Kaviratne M, Ramalingam TR, et al . The IL-21 receptor augments Th2 effector function and alternative macrophage activation. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 20442055.
  • 23
    Reece JJ, Siracusa MC & Scott AL. Innate immune responses to lung-stage helminth infection induce alternatively activated alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 2006; 74: 49704981.
  • 24
    Reese TA, Liang HE, Tager AM, et al . Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature 2007; 447: 9296.
  • 25
    Sukhdeo MV, O’Grady RT & Hsu SC. The site selected by the larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus. J Helminthol 1984; 58: 1923.
  • 26
    Cypess RH, Lucia HL, Dunsford HA & Enriquez FJ. The tissue reactions of mice to infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. J Helminthol 1988; 62: 6976.
  • 27
    Anthony RM, Urban JF Jr, Alem F, et al . Memory T (H) 2 cells induce alternatively activated macrophages to mediate protection against nematode parasites. Nat Med 2006; 12: 955960.
  • 28
    Stadecker MJ, Kamisato JK & Chikunguwo SM. Induction of T helper cell unresponsiveness to antigen by macrophages from schistosomal egg granulomas. A basis for immunomodulation in schistosomiasis? J Immunol 1990; 145: 26972700.
  • 29
    Pearce EJ & MacDonald AS. The immunobiology of schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 499511.
  • 30
    Smith P, Walsh CM, Mangan NE, et al . Schistosoma mansoni worms induce anergy of T cells via selective up-regulation of programmed death ligand 1 on macrophages. J Immunol 2004; 173: 12401248.
  • 31
    Latchman Y, Wood CR, Chernova T, et al . PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 261268.
  • 32
    Sharpe AH, Wherry EJ, Ahmed R & Freeman GJ. The function of programmed cell death 1 and its ligands in regulating autoimmunity and infection. Nat Immunol 2007; 8: 239245.
  • 33
    Herbert DR, Holscher C, Mohrs M, et al . Alternative macrophage activation is essential for survival during schistosomiasis and downmodulates T helper 1 responses and immunopathology. Immunity 2004; 20: 623635.
  • 34
    Donnelly S, O’Neill SM, Sekiya M, Mulcahy G & Dalton JP. Thioredoxin peroxidase secreted by Fasciola hepatica induces the alternative activation of macrophages. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 166173.
  • 35
    Flynn RJ, Mannion C, Golden O, Hacariz O & Mulcahy G. Experimental Fasciola hepatica infection alters responses to tests used for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Infect Immun 2007; 75: 13731381.
  • 36
    Nair MG, Guild KJ & Artis D. Novel effector molecules in type 2 inflammation: lessons drawn from helminth infection and allergy. J Immunol 2006; 177: 13931399.
  • 37
    Francois A, Favennec L, Cambon-Michot C, et al . Taenia crassiceps invasive cysticercosis: a new human pathogen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 488492.
  • 38
    Heldwein K, Biedermann HG, Hamperl WD, et al . Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps infection in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Am J Trop Med Hygiene 2006; 75: 108111.
  • 39
    Chau CY & Freeman RS. Intraperitoneal passage of Taenia crassiceps in rats. J Parasitol 1976; 62: 837839.
  • 40
    Ishida MM, Rubinsky-Elefant G, Ferreira AW, Hoshino-Shimizu S & Vaz AJ. Helminth antigens (Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals. Acta Trop 2003; 89: 7384.
  • 41
    Terrazas LI, Bojalil R, Govezensky T & Larralde C. Shift from an early protective Th1-type immune response to a late permissive Th2-type response in murine cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps) J Parasitol 1998; 84: 7481.
  • 42
    Toenjes SA, Spolski RJ, Mooney KA & Kuhn RE. The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice infected with larval Taenia crassiceps is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response. Parasitology 1999; 118: 623633.
  • 43
    Raes G, Brys L, Dahal BK et al . Macrophage galactose-type C-type lectins as novel markers for alternatively activated macrophages elicited by parasitic infections and allergic airway inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 77: 321327.
  • 44
    Terrazas LI, Montero D, Terrazas CA, Reyes JL & Rodriguez-Sosa M. Role of the programmed death-1 pathway in the suppressive activity of alternatively activated macrophages in experimental cysticercosis. Int J Parasitol 2005; 35: 13491358.
  • 45
    Rodriguez-Sosa M, David JR, Bojalil R, Satoskar AR & Terrazas LI. Cutting edge: susceptibility to the larval stage of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps is mediated by Th2 response induced via STAT6 signaling. J Immunol 2002; 168: 31353139.
  • 46
    Gomez-Garcia L, Rivera-Montoya I, Rodriguez-Sosa M & Terrazas LI. Carbohydrate components of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes display Th2-adjuvant and anti-inflammatory properties when co-injected with bystander antigen. Parasitol Res 2006; 99: 440448.
  • 47
    Chavarria A, Roger B, Fragoso G, et al . TH2 profile in asymptomatic Taenia solium human neurocysticercosis. Microbes Infect 2003; 5: 11091115.
  • 48
    Bueno EC, Dos Ramos Machado L, Livramento JA & Vaz AJ. Cellular immune response of patients with neurocysticercosis (inflammatory and non-inflammatory phases). Acta Trop 2004; 91: 205213.
  • 49
    Chavarria A, Fleury A, Garcia E, Marquez C, Fragoso G & Sciutto E. Relationship between the clinical heterogeneity of neurocysticercosis and the immune-inflammatory profiles. Clin Immunol 2005; 116: 271278.
  • 50
    Vuitton DA. The ambiguous role of immunity in echinococcosis: protection of the host or of the parasite? Acta Trop 2003; 85: 119132.
  • 51
    Mejri N & Gottstein B. Intraperitoneal Echinococcus multilocularis infection in C57BL/6 mice affects CD40 and B7 costimulator expression on peritoneal macrophages and impairs peritoneal T cell activation. Parasite Immunol 2006; 28: 373385.
  • 52
    Persaud R, Wang A, Reardon C & McKay DM. Characterization of the immuno-regulatory response to the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta in the non-permissive mouse host. Int J Parasitol 2007; 37: 393403.
  • 53
    O’Neal SE, Guimaraes LH, Machado PR, et al . Influence of helminth infections on the clinical course of and immune response to Leishmania braziliensis cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 2007; 195: 142148.
  • 54
    La Flamme AC, Scott P & Pearce EJ. Schistosomiasis delays lesion resolution during Leishmania major infection by impairing parasite killing by macrophages. Parasite Immunol 2002; 24: 339345.
  • 55
    Lamb TJ, Graham AL, Le Goff L & Allen JE. Co-infected C57BL/6 mice mount appropriately polarized and compartmentalized cytokine responses to Litomosoides sigmodontis and Leishmania major but disease progression is altered. Parasite Immunol 2005; 27: 317324.
  • 56
    Rodriguez-Sosa M, Rivera-Montoya I, Espinoza A, et al . Acute cysticercosis favours rapid and more severe lesions caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection, a role for alternatively activated macrophages. Cell Immunol 2006; 242: 6171.
  • 57
    Rodriguez M, Terrazas LI, Marquez R & Bojalil R. Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi is modified by a previous non-related infection. Parasite Immunol 1999; 21: 177185.
  • 58
    Graham AL, Lamb TJ, Read AF & Allen JE. Malaria–filaria coinfection in mice makes malarial disease more severe unless filarial infection achieves patency. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 410421.
  • 59
    Kahnert A, Seiler P, Stein M, et al . Alternative activation deprives macrophages of a coordinated defense program to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol 2006; 36: 631647.
  • 60
    Elston DM. The hygiene hypothesis and atopy: bring back the parasites? J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54: 172179.
  • 61
    McKay DM. The beneficial helminth parasite? Parasitology 2006; 132: 112.
  • 62
    Kuroda E, Yoshida Y, En Shan B & Yamashita U. Suppression of macrophage interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α production in mice infected with Toxocara canis. Parasite Immunol 2001; 23: 305311.
  • 63
    Brys L, Beschin A, Raes G, et al . Reactive oxygen species and 12/15-lipoxygenase contribute to the antiproliferative capacity of alternatively activated myeloid cells elicited during helminth infection. J Immunol 2005; 174: 60956104.
  • 64
    Rodriguez-Sosa M, Saavedra R, Tenorio EP, Rosas LE, Satoskar AR & Terrazas LI. A STAT4-dependent Th1 response is required for resistance to the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 45524560.