SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J & Kestens L. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 2006; 368: 11061118.
  • 2
    Pearce EJ & MacDonald AS. The Immunobiology of Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 499511.
  • 3
    Ross AG, Bartley PB, Sleigh AC, et al . Schistosomiasis. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 12121220.
  • 4
    Wilson MS, Mentink-Kane MM, Pesce JT, Ramalingam TR, Thompson R & Wynn TA. Immunopathology of schistosomiasis. Immunol Cell Biol 2007; 85: 148154.
  • 5
    Wynn TA, Thompson RW, Cheever AW & Mentink-Kane MM. Immunopathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev 2004; 201: 156167.
  • 6
    Abath FG, Morais CN, Montenegro CE, Wynn TA & Montenegro SM. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in schistosomiasis: what can be learnt from human studies? Trends Parasitol 2006; 22: 8591.
  • 7
    Caldas IR, Campi-Azevedo AC, Oliveira LF, Silveira AM, Oliveira RC & Gazzinelli G. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: Immune responses during acute and chronic phases of the infection. Acta Trop 2008.
  • 8
    Ross AG, Vickers D, Olds GR, Shah SM & McManus DP. Katayama Syndrome. Lancet Infect Dis 2007: 7.
  • 9
    King CL. Initiation and regulation of disease in schistosomiasis. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 213264.
  • 10
    Olveda RM. Disease in schistosomiasis japonica. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 361389.
  • 11
    Ross AG, Sleigh AC, Li Y, et al . Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: prospects and challenges for the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14: 270295.
  • 12
    Kamal SM & El Sayed Khalifa K. Immune modulation by helminthic infections: worms and viral infections. Parasite Immunol 2006; 28: 483496.
  • 13
    Hayashi M. Clinical features of cerebral schistosomiasis, especially in cerebral and hepatosplenomegalic type. Parasitol Int 2003; 52: 375383.
  • 14
    Prata A. Disease in schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 297332.
  • 15
    Friedman JF, Kanzaria HK & McGarvey ST. Human schistosomiasis and anemia: the relationship and potential mechanisms. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21: 386392.
  • 16
    De Jesus AR, Silva A, Santana LB, et al . Clinical and immunologic evaluation of 31 patients with acute schistosomiasis mansoni. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 98105.
  • 17
    King CH. Disease in schistosomiasis haematobium. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 265295.
  • 18
    Hou XY, McManus DP, Gray DJ, et al . A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of safety and efficacy of combined praziquantel and artemether treatment for acute schistosomiasis japonica in China. Bull World Health Organ 2008; 86: 788795.
  • 19
    Espirito Santo MC, Azeredo LM, Teles HM, Gryschek RC, Ferreira CS & Amato Neto V. Abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of fibrosis and portal hypertension in an area of schistosomiasis low endemicity. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2008; 50: 117119.
  • 20
    Hatz C, Murakami H & Jenkins JM. A review of the literature on the use of ultrasonography in schistosomiasis with special reference to its use in field studies. 3. Schistosoma japonicum. Acta Trop 1992; 51: 2936.
  • 21
    Li YS, Kardorff R, Richter J, et al . Ultrasound organometry: the importance of body height adjusted normal ranges in assessing liver and spleen parameters among Chinese subjects with Schistosoma japonicum infection. Acta Trop 2004; 92: 133138.
  • 22
    Richter J, Hatz C & Haussinger D. Ultrasound in tropical and parasitic diseases. Lancet 2003; 362: 900902.
  • 23
    Ouma J, El-Khoby T, Fenwick A & Blanton R. Disease in schistosomiasis mansoni in Africa. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 333360.
  • 24
    Vennervald BJ & Dunne DW. Morbidity in schistosomiasis: an update. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17: 439447.
  • 25
    Bezerra AS, D’Ippolito G, Caldana RP, et al . Differentiating cirrhosis and chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis using MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008; 190: W201W207.
  • 26
    Ellis MK, Li Y, Hou X, Chen H & McManus DP. sTNFR-II and sICAM-1 are associated with acute disease and hepatic inflammation in schistosomiasis japonica. Int J Parasitol 2008; 38: 717723.
  • 27
    Martins-Leite P, Gazzinelli G, Alves-Oliveira LF, et al . Effect of chemotherapy with praziquantel on the production of cytokines and morbidity associated with schistosomiasis mansoni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 27802786.
  • 28
    Hsu SY, Hsu HF, Davis JR & Lust GL. Comparative studies on the lesions caused by eggs of Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni in livers of albino mice and rhesus monkeys. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1972; 66: 8997.
  • 29
    Hurst MH, Lola SG & Lindberg R. Immunomodulation of the hepatic egg granuloma in Schistosoma japonicum-infected pigs. Parasite Immunol 2006; 28: 681686.
  • 30
    Hurst MH, Willingham AL, 3rd & Lindberg R. Tissue responses in experimental schistosomiasis japonica in the pig: a histopathologic study of different stages of single low- or high-dose infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000; 62: 4556.
  • 31
    Hurst MH, Willingham AL & Lindberg R. Experimental Schistosomiasis japonica in the pig: immunohistology of the hepatic egg granuloma. Parasite Immunol 2002; 24: 151159.
  • 32
    Cheng YL, Song WJ, Liu WQ, et al . The effects of T cell deficiency on the development of worms and granuloma formation in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Parasitol Res 2008; 102: 11291134.
  • 33
    Cheever AW, Eltoum IA, Andrade ZA & Cox TM. Biology and pathology of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum infections in several strains of nude mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 48: 496503.
  • 34
    Ji F, Liu Z, Cao J et al . B cell response is required for granuloma formation in the early infection of Schistosoma japonicum. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e1724.
  • 35
    Jankovic D, Cheever AW, Kullberg MC et al . CD4+ T cell-mediated granulomatous pathology in schistosomiasis is downregulated by a B cell-dependent mechanism requiring Fc receptor signaling. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 619629.
  • 36
    Bartley PB, Ramm GA, Jones MK, Ruddell RG, Li Y & McManus DP. A contributory role for activated hepatic stellate cells in the dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced fibrosis. Int J Parasitol 2006.
  • 37
    Chang D, Ramalho LN, Ramalho FS, Martinelli AL & Zucoloto S. Hepatic stellate cells in human schistosomiasis mansoni: a comparative immunohistochemical study with liver cirrhosis. Acta Trop 2006; 97: 318323.
  • 38
    Zou W-L, Yang Z, Zang Y-J, Li D-J, Liang Z-P & Shen Z-Y. Inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E1 on activation of hepatic stellate cells in rabbits with schistosomiasis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2007; 6: 176181.
  • 39
    Singh KP, Gerard HC, Hudson AP & Boros DL. Dynamics of collagen, MMP and TIMP gene expression during the granulomatous, fibrotic process induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2004; 98: 581593.
  • 40
    Singh KP, Gerard HC, Hudson AP & Boros DL. Differential expression of collagen, MMP, TIMP and fibrogenic-cytokine genes in the granulomatous colon of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2006; 100: 611620.
  • 41
    Knittel T, Kobold D, Saile B, et al . Rat liver myofibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells: different cell populations of the fibroblast lineage with fibrogenic potential. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 12051221.
  • 42
    Lenzi H, Romanha Wde S, Santos RZ, et al . Four whole-istic aspects of schistosome granuloma biology: fractal arrangement, internal regulation, autopoietic component and closure. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006; 101: 219231.
  • 43
    Hesse M, Modolell M, La Flamme AC, et al . Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology is shaped by the pattern of 1-arginine metabolism. J Immunol 2001; 167: 65336544.
  • 44
    Stavitsky AB. Regulation of granulomatous inflammation in experimental models of schistosomiasis. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 112.
  • 45
    Pesce J, Kaviratne M, Ramalingam TR, et al . The IL-21 receptor augments Th2 effector function and alternative macrophage activation. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 20442055.
  • 46
    Song E, Ouyang N, Horbelt M, Antus B, Wang M & Exton MS. Influence of alternatively and classically activated macrophages on fibrogenic activities of human fibroblasts. Cell Immunol 2000; 204: 1928.
  • 47
    Thompson RW, Pesce JT, Ramalingam T, et al . Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity. PLoS Pathog 2008; 4: e1000023.
  • 48
    Liu T, Dhanasekaran SM, Jin H, et al . FIZZ1 stimulation of myofibroblast differentiation. Am J Pathol 2004; 164: 13151326.
  • 49
    Edungbola LD, Cha YN, Bueding E & Schiller EL. Granuloma formation around exogenous eggs of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Afr J Med Med Sci 1982; 11: 7579.
  • 50
    Monzawa S, Uchiyama G, Ohtomo K & Araki T. Schistosomiasis japonica of the liver: contrast-enhanced CT findings in 113 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 161: 323327.
  • 51
    Cerri GG, Alves VA & Magalhaes A. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni: ultrasound manifestations. Radiology 1984; 153: 777780.
  • 52
    Manzella A, Ohtomo K, Monzawa S & Lim JH. Schistosomiasis of the liver. Abdom Imaging 2008.
  • 53
    Oswald IP, Dozois CM, Barlagne R, Fournout S, Johansen MV & Bogh HO. Cytokine mRNA expression in pigs infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Parasitology 2001; 122: 299307.
  • 54
    Pearce EJ, Caspar P, Grzych JM, Lewis FA & Sher A. Downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. J Exp Med 1991; 173: 159166.
  • 55
    Fallon PG, Richardson EJ, McKenzie GJ & McKenzie AN. Schistosome infection of transgenic mice defines distinct and contrasting pathogenic roles for IL-4 and IL-13: IL-13 is a profibrotic agent. J Immunol 2000; 164: 25852591.
  • 56
    Cheever AW, Williams ME, Wynn TA, et al . Anti-IL-4 treatment of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice inhibits development of T cells and non-B, non-T cells expressing Th2 cytokines while decreasing egg-induced hepatic fibrosis. J Immunol 1994; 153: 753759.
  • 57
    Chensue SW, Warmington KS, Ruth J, Lincoln PM & Kunkel SL. Cross-regulatory role of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4 and IL-10 in schistosome egg granuloma formation: in vivo regulation of Th activity and inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol 1994; 98: 395400.
  • 58
    Hirata M, Kage M, Hara T, Yoneda Y, Zhang M & Fukuma T. Schistosoma japonicum egg granuloma formation in the interleukin-4 or interferon-γ; deficient host. Parasite Immunol 2001; 23: 271280.
  • 59
    Rumbley CA, Sugaya H, Zekavat SA, El Refaei M, Perrin PJ & Phillips SM. Activated eosinophils are the major source of Th2-associated cytokines in the schistosome granuloma. J Immunol 1999; 162: 10031009.
  • 60
    Yamashita T & Boros DL. IL-4 influences IL-2 production and granulomatous inflammation in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. J Immunol 1992; 149: 36593664.
  • 61
    Kaviratne M, Hesse M, Leusink M, et al . IL-13 activates a mechanism of tissue fibrosis that is completely TGF-β independent. J Immunol 2004; 173: 40204029.
  • 62
    Sugimoto R, Enjoji M, Nakamuta M, et al . Effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on collagen production in cultured LI90 human hepatic stellate cells. Liver Int 2005; 25: 420428.
  • 63
    Ramalingam TR, Pesce JT, Sheikh F, et al . Unique functions of the type II interleukin 4 receptor identified in mice lacking the interleukin 13 receptor [α]1 chain. Nat Immunol 2008; 9: 2533.
  • 64
    Herbert DBR, Orekov T, Perkins C, Rothenberg ME & Finkelman FD. IL-4R{α} Expression by Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Is Necessary and Sufficient for Host Protection against Acute Schistosomiasis. J Immunol 2008; 180: 49484955.
  • 65
    Cheever AW, Xu YH, Sher A & Macedonia JG. Analysis of egg granuloma formation in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice treated with antibodies to interleukin-5 and γ interferon. Infect Immun 1991; 59: 40714074.
  • 66
    Reiman RM, Thompson RW, Feng CG, et al . Interleukin-5 (IL-5) augments the progression of liver fibrosis by regulating IL-13 activity. Infect Immun 2006; 74: 14711479.
  • 67
    Cheever AW, Finkelman FD, Caspar P, Heiny S, Macedonia JG & Sher A. Treatment with anti-IL-2 antibodies reduces hepatic pathology and eosinophilia in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice while selectively inhibiting T cell IL-5 production. J Immunol 1992; 148: 32443248.
  • 68
    Cheever AW, Xu Y, Sher A, Finkelman FD, Cox TM & Macedonia JG. Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice show reduced hepatic fibrosis and eosinophilia and selective inhibition of interleukin-5 secretion by CD4+ cells after treatment with anti-interleukin-2 antibodies. Infect Immun 1993; 61: 12881292.
  • 69
    Swartz JM, Dyer KD, Cheever AW, et al . Schistosoma mansoni infection in eosinophil lineage-ablated mice. Blood 2006; 108: 24202427.
  • 70
    Lins RAB, Cavalcanti CBdL, Araújo-Filho JLS, Melo-Júnior MRd & Chaves MEC. A distribuição dos eosinófilos nas diferentes fases de evolução do granuloma hepático em camundongos infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2008; 41: 173178.
  • 71
    Hesse M, Piccirillo CA, Belkaid Y, et al . The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is controlled by cooperating IL-10-producing innate effector and regulatory T cells. J Immunol 2004; 172: 31573166.
  • 72
    Wynn TA, Cheever AW, Williams ME, et al . IL-10 regulates liver pathology in acute murine Schistosomiasis mansoni but is not required for immune down-modulation of chronic disease. J Immunol 1998; 160: 44734480.
  • 73
    Todt JC, Whitfield JR, Ivard SR & Boros DL. Down-regulation of interleukin-12, interleukin-12R expression/activity mediates the switch from Th1 to Th2 granuloma response during murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Scand J Immunol 2000; 52: 385392.
  • 74
    Hoffmann KF, Cheever AW & Wynn TA. IL-10 and the dangers of immune polarization: excessive type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses induce distinct forms of lethal immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis. J Immunol 2000; 164: 64066416.
  • 75
    Steinman L. A brief history of TH17, the first major revision in the TH1/TH2 hypothesis of T cell-mediated tissue damage. Nat Med 2007; 13: 139145.
  • 76
    Rutitzky LI, Bazzone L, Shainheit MG, Joyce-Shaikh B, Cua DJ & Stadecker MJ. IL-23 is required for the development of severe egg-induced immunopathology in schistosomiasis and for lesional expression of IL-17. J Immunol 2008; 180: 24862495.
  • 77
    Rutitzky LI, Lopes da Rosa JR & Stadecker MJ. Severe CD4 T cell-mediated immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis is dependent on IL-12p40 and correlates with high levels of IL-17. J Immunol 2005; 175: 39203926.
  • 78
    Rutitzky LI & Stadecker MJ. CD4 T cells producing pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 mediate high pathology in schistosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006; 101(Suppl. 1): 327330.
  • 79
    Warren KS, Grove DI, & Pelley RP. The Schistosoma japonicum egg granuloma. II. Cellular composition, granuloma size, and immunologic concomitants. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1978; 27: 271275.
  • 80
    Sher A, Coffman RL, Hieny S, Scott P & Cheever AW. Interleukin 5 is required for the blood and tissue eosinophilia but not granuloma formation induced by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 6165.
  • 81
    Yap G, Cheever A, Caspar P, Jankovic D & Sher A. Unimpaired down-modulation of the hepatic granulomatous response in CD8 T-cell- and γ interferon-deficient mice chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 25832586.
  • 82
    Bickle Q & Helmby H. Lack of galectin-3 involvement in murine intestinal nematode and schistosome infection. Parasite Immunol 2007; 29: 93100.
  • 83
    Breuilh L, Vanhoutte F, Fontaine J, et al . Galectin-3 modulates immune and inflammatory responses during helminthic infection: Impact of galectin-3 deficiency on the functions of dendritic cells. Infect Immun 2007; 75: 51485157.
  • 84
    Oliveira FL, Frazao P, Chammas R, et al . Kinetics of mobilization and differentiation of lymphohematopoietic cells during experimental murine schistosomiasis in galectin-3/mice. J Leukoc Biol 2007; 82: 300310.
  • 85
    Taylor JJ, Mohrs M & Pearce EJ. Regulatory T cell responses develop in parallel to Th responses and control the magnitude and phenotype of the Th effector population. J Immunol 2006; 176: 58395847.
  • 86
    Baumgart M, Tompkins F, Leng J & Hesse M. Naturally occurring CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are an essential, IL-10-independent part of the immunoregulatory network in Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced inflammation. J Immunol 2006; 176: 53745387.
  • 87
    Walsh CM, Smith P & Fallon PG. Role for CTLA-4 but not CD25+ T cells during Schistosoma mansoni infection of mice. Parasite Immunol 2007; 29: 293308.
  • 88
    Yang J, Zhao J, Yang Y, et al . Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4 CD25 T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Immunology 2007; 120: 818.
  • 89
    Mo HM, Liu WQ, Lei JH, Cheng YL, Wang CZ & Li YL. Schistosoma japonicum eggs modulate the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and prevent development of colitis in mice. Exp Parasitol 2007; 116: 385389.
  • 90
    Mentink-Kane MM, Cheever AW, Thompson RW, et al . IL-13 receptor α 2 down-modulates granulomatous inflammation and prolongs host survival in schistosomiasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 586590.
  • 91
    Chiaramonte MG, Mentink-Kane M, Jacobson BA, et al . Regulation and function of the interleukin 13 receptor α 2 during a T helper cell type 2-dominant immune response. J Exp Med 2003; 197: 687701.
  • 92
    Mentink-Kane MM & Wynn TA. Opposing roles for IL-13 and IL-13 receptor IL-13Ra2 in health and disease. Immunol Rev 2004; 202: 191202.
  • 93
    Rutitzky LI, Mirkin GA & Stadecker MJ. Apoptosis by neglect of CD4+ Th cells in granulomas: a novel effector mechanism involved in the control of egg-induced immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis. J Immunol 2003; 171: 18591867.
  • 94
    Souza ALS, Roffe E, Pinho V, et al . Potential role of the chemokine Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1{α} in human and experimental schistosomiasis. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 25152523.
  • 95
    Jakubzick C, Wen H, Matsukawa A, Keller M, Kunkel SL & Hogaboam CM. Role of CCR4 ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, during Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced pulmonary granuloma formation in mice. Am J Pathol 2004; 165: 12111221.
  • 96
    Souza PR, Souza AL, Negrao-Correa D, Teixeira AL & Teixeira MM. The role of chemokines in controlling granulomatous inflammation in Schistosoma mansoni infection. Acta Trop 2008.
  • 97
    Falcao PL, Correa-Oliveira R, Fraga LA, et al . Plasma concentrations and role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α during chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection in humans. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 16961700.
  • 98
    Chensue SW, Warmington KS, Allenspach EJ, et al . Differential expression and cross-regulatory function of RANTES during mycobacterial (Type 1) and schistosomal (Type 2) antigen-elicited granulomatous inflammation. J Immunol 1999; 163: 165173.
  • 99
    Chiu BC & Chensue SW. Chemokine responses in schistosomal antigen-elicited granuloma formation. Parasite Immunol 2002; 24: 285294.
  • 100
    Chiu B-C, Freeman CM, Stolberg VR, et al . Cytokine-chemokine networks in experimental mycobacterial and schistosomal pulmonary granuloma formation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2003; 29: 106116.
  • 101
    Park MK, Hoffmann KF, Cheever AW, Amichay D, Wynn TA & Farber JM. Patterns of chemokine expression in models of Schistosoma mansoni inflammation and infection reveal relationships between type 1 and type 2 responses and chemokines in vivo. Infect Immun 2001; 69: 67556768.
  • 102
    Qiu B, Frait KA, Reich F, Komuniecki E & Chensue SW. Chemokine expression dynamics in mycobacterial (type-1) and schistosomal (type-2) antigen-elicited pulmonary granuloma formation. Am J Pathol 2001; 158: 15031515.
  • 103
    Souza AL, Sousa-Pereira SR, Teixeira MM, Lambertucci JR & Teixeira AL. The role of chemokines in Schistosoma mansoni infection: insights from human disease and murine models. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006; 101: 333338.
  • 104
    Hoffmann KF, McCarty TC, Segal DH, et al . Disease fingerprinting with cDNA microarrays reveals distinct gene expression profiles in lethal type 1 and type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory reactions. FASEB J 2001; 15: 25452547.
  • 105
    Sandler NG, Mentink-Kane MM, Cheever AW & Wynn TA. Global gene expression profiles during acute pathogen-induced pulmonary inflammation reveal divergent roles for Th1 and Th2 responses in tissue repair. J Immunol 2003; 171: 36553667.
  • 106
    Sakthianandeswaren A, Elso CM, Simpson K, et al . The wound repair response controls outcome to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 1555115556.
  • 107
    Ji M-J, Su C, Wang Y, et al . Characterization of CD4+ T cell responses in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 2006; 38: 327334.
  • 108
    Ji MJ, Su C, Wu HW, et al . Gene expression profile of CD4+ T cells reveals an interferon signaling suppression associated with progression of experimental Schistosoma japonicum infection. Cell Immunol 2003; 224: 5562.
  • 109
    Mwatha JK, Kimani G, Kamau T, et al . High levels of TNF, soluble TNF receptors, soluble ICAM-1, and IFN-γ, but low levels of IL-5, are associated with hepatosplenic disease in human schistosomiasis mansoni. J Immunol 1998; 160: 19921999.
  • 110
    Wilson S, Jones FM, Mwatha JK, et al . Hepatosplenomegaly is associated with low regulatory and Th2 responses to schistosome antigens in childhood schistosomiasis and malaria coinfection. Infect Immun 2008; 76: 22122218.
  • 111
    De Morais CN, De Souza JR, Melo WG, et al . Cytokine profile associated with chronic and acute human schistosomiasis mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2008; 103: 561568.
  • 112
    Teixeira-Carvalho A, Martins-Filho OA, Peruhype-Magalhaes V, et al . Cytokines, chemokine receptors, CD4 (+) CD25 (HIGH+) T-cells and clinical forms of human schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 2008.
  • 113
    Booth M, Mwatha JK, Joseph S, et al . Periportal fibrosis in human Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with low IL-10, low IFN-γ, high TNF-{α}, or low RANTES, depending on age and gender. J Immunol 2004; 172: 12951303.
  • 114
    Coutinho HM, Acosta LP, Wu HW, et al . Th2 cytokines are associated with persistent hepatic fibrosis in human Schistosoma japonicum infection. J Infect Dis 2007; 195: 288295.
  • 115
    Henri S, Chevillard C, Mergani A, et al . Cytokine regulation of periportal fibrosis in humans infected with Schistosoma mansoni: IFN-γ is associated with protection against fibrosis and TNF-α with aggravation of disease. J Immunol 2002; 169: 929936.
  • 116
    Silveira-Lemos D, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Martins-Filho OA, et al . Eosinophil activation status, cytokines and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infected patients. Acta Trop 2008.
  • 117
    Arnaud V, Li J, Wang Y, et al . Regulatory role of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ in severe hepatic central and peripheral fibrosis in humans infected with Schistosoma japonicum. J Infect Dis 2008; 198: 418426.
  • 118
    Coutinho HM, McGarvey ST, Acosta LP, et al . Nutritional status and serum cytokine profiles in children, adolescents, and young adults with Schistosoma japonicum-associated hepatic fibrosis, in Leyte, Philippines. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 528536.
  • 119
    Blanton RE, Salam EA, Ehsan A, King CH & Goddard KA. Schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and the interferon γ receptor: a linkage analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Eur J Hum Genet 2005; 13: 660668.
  • 120
    Campino S, Kwiatkowski D & Dessein A. Mendelian and complex genetics of susceptibility and resistance to parasitic infections. Semin Immunol 2006; 18: 411422.
  • 121
    Chevillard C, Moukoko CE, Elwali NE, et al . IFN-γ polymorphisms (IFN-γ+2109 and IFN-γ+3810) are associated with severe hepatic fibrosis in human hepatic schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni). J Immunol 2003; 171: 55965601.
  • 122
    Dessein AJ, Hillaire D, Elwali NE, et al . Severe hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infection is controlled by a major locus that is closely linked to the interferon-γ receptor gene. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 65: 709721.
  • 123
    Ellis MK, Li Y, Rong Z, Chen H & McManus DP. Familial aggregation of human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in the Poyang Lake region, China. Int J Parasitol 2006; 36: 7177.
  • 124
    Ellis MK, Zhao ZZ, Chen HG, Montgomery GW, Li YS & McManus DP. Analysis of the 5q31 33 locus shows an association between single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the IL-5 gene and symptomatic infection with the human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum. J Immunol 2007; 179: 83668371.
  • 125
    Marquet S, Abel L, Hillaire D, et al . Genetic localization of a locus controlling the intensity of infection by Schistosoma mansoni on chromosome 5q31–q33. Nat Genet 1996; 14: 181184.
  • 126
    Marquet S, Abel L, Hillaire D & Dessein A. Full results of the genome-wide scan which localises a locus controlling the intensity of infection by Schistosoma mansoni on chromosome 5q31–q33. Eur J Hum Genet 1999; 7: 8897.
  • 127
    He H, Isnard A, Kouriba B, et al . A STAT6 gene polymorphism is associated with high infection levels in urinary schistosomiasis. Genes Immun 2008; 9: 195206.
  • 128
    Chevillard C, Henri S, Stefani F, Parzy D & Dessein A. Two new polymorphisms in the human interferon γ (IFN-γ) promoter. Eur J Immunogenet 2002; 29: 5356.
  • 129
    Cabello PH, Krieger H, Lopes JD & Sant’Ana EJ. On the association between HLA-A1 and B5 and clinical forms of schistosomiasis mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86: 3740.
  • 130
    Secor WE, Del Corral H, Dos Reis MG, et al . Association of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with HLA-DQB1*0201. J Infect Dis 1996; 174: 11311135.
  • 131
    Waine GJ, Ross AG, Williams GM, Sleigh AC & McManus DP. HLA class II antigens are associated with resistance or susceptibility to hepatosplenic disease in a Chinese population infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28: 537542.
  • 132
    Hirayama K, Chen H, Kikuchi M, et al . HLA-DR-DQ alleles and HLA-DP alleles are independently associated with susceptibility to different stages of post-schistosomal hepatic fibrosis in the Chinese population. Tissue Antigens 1999; 53: 269274.
  • 133
    McManus DP, Ross AG, Williams GM, et al . HLA class II antigens positively and negatively associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in a Chinese population. Int J Parasitol 2001; 31: 674680.
  • 134
    Hirayama K. Genetic factors associated with development of cerebral malaria and fibrotic schistosomiasis. Korean J Parasitol 2002; 40: 165172.
  • 135
    King CH, Dickman K & Tisch DJ. Reassessment of the cost of chronic helmintic infection: a meta-analysis of disability-related outcomes in endemic schistosomiasis. Lancet 2005; 365: 15611569.
  • 136
    Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M & Utzinger J. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6: 411425.
  • 137
    Jia TW, Zhou XN, Wang XH, Utzinger J, Steinmann P & Wu XH. Assessment of the age-specific disability weight of chronic schistosomiasis japonica. Bull World Health Organ 2007; 85: 458465.
  • 138
    Finkelstein JL, Schleinitz MD, Carabin H & McGarvey ST. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008; 2: e158.
  • 139
    Bergquist R, Utzinger J & McManus DP. Trick or treat: the role of vaccines in integrated schistosomiasis control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008; 2: e244.
  • 140
    McManus DP & Loukas A. Current status of vaccines for schistosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21: 225242.
  • 141
    Capron A, Riveau G, Capron M & Trottein F. Schistosomes: the road from host-parasite interactions to vaccines in clinical trials. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21: 143149.
  • 142
    James SL & Colley DG. Progress in vaccine development. In: MahmoudAA (ed.): Schistosomiasis. London, Imperial College Press, 2001: 469495.
  • 143
    McManus DP & Bartley PB. A vaccine against Asian schistosomiasis. Parasitol Int 2004; 53: 163173.
  • 144
    Stadecker MJ, Asahi H, Finger E, Hernandez HJ, Rutitzky LI & Sun J. The immunobiology of Th1 polarization in high-pathology schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev 2004; 201: 168179.
  • 145
    Liu F, Lu J, Hu W, et al . New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum. PLoS Pathog 2006; 2: e29.
  • 146
    Cass CL, Johnson JR, Califf LL, et al . Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni egg secretions. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2007; 155: 8493.
  • 147
    Rutitzky LI, Hernandez HJ & Stadecker MJ. Th1-polarizing immunization with egg antigens correlates with severe exacerbation of immunopathology and death in schistosome infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 1324313248.
  • 148
    Wynn TA. Common and unique mechanisms regulate fibrosis in various fibroproliferative diseases. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 524529.
  • 149
    Wynn TA. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis. J Pathol 2008; 214: 199210.