• DC;
  • Escherichia coli;
  • excretory/secretory;
  • helminth;
  • immunomodulation;
  • LPS;
  • mouse;
  • Neisseria meningitides;
  • toll-like receptor;
  • Trichinella spiralis


Evidence from experimental studies indicates that during chronic infections with certain helminth species a regulatory network is induced that can down-modulate not only parasite-induced inflammation but also reduce other immunopathologies such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms however, and the molecules involved in this immunomodulation are unknown. Here, we focus on the effect of Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory antigens (TspES) on the innate immune response by studying the effect of TspES on DC maturation in vitro. Bone marrow-derived DC from BALB/c mice were incubated with TspES either alone or in combination with LPS derived from two different bacteria. As indicators of DC maturation, the cytokine production (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α) and the expression of various surface molecules (MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86) were measured. Results indicate that while TspES alone did not change the expression of the different surface molecules or the cytokine production, it completely inhibited DC maturation induced by Escherichia coli LPS (E. coli LPS). In contrast, DC maturation induced by LPS from another bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis, was not affected by TspES. These results were confirmed using TLR4/MD2/CD14 transfected HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, T. spiralis ES antigens lead to suppression of DC maturation but this effect depends on the type of LPS used to activate these cells.