Cold-hardiness: a component of the diapause syndrome in pupae of the flesh flies, Sarcophaga crassipalpis and S. bullata


Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, U.S.A


ABSTRACT. Diapausing pupae of Sarcophaga crassipalpis Macquart and S. bullata Parker reared at 20 or 25d̀C readily survive exposure to - 10d̀C for at least 25 days. In contrast, non-diapausing pupae produced by a variety of means are consistently intolerant of the low temperature. Non-diapausing pupae are not immediately killed by exposure to -10d̀C: pupae exposed to the low temperature for up to 3 days proceed with pharate adult development but ultimately die before adult eclosion. Unlike many temperate zone insects, diapausing flesh fly pupae do not require a period of chilling for induction of cold-hardiness, and the attribute of cold-hardiness cannot be separated from other features of the diapause syndrome. Some cold-hardiness is already acquired during the third larval instar: diapause-destined larvae exposed to -10d̀C are more successful in pupariating than non-diapause-destined larvae of the same age.