A QTL analysis for three different adaptive traits was performed in an F1 progeny of Castanea sativa Mill. The female and male parents originated from two Turkish chestnut populations adapted to a drought and humid environment, respectively. QTLs for bud flush, growth and carbon isotope discrimination were detected over a 3-year period. Bud set was also recorded in the last year of measurement. Thirty-five individual QTLs were detected for phenology, 28 for growth and 17 for carbon isotope discrimination, most of them explaining a low to moderate proportion of the total phenotypic variance. QTLs were distributed throughout the whole genome. Temporally stable QTLs were identified for all the traits analysed, with phenology showing the higher proportion of stable QTLs. Interesting phenotypic correlations and co-localizations among QTLs for different adaptive traits were observed, allowing the formulation of an hypothesis about the genetic adaptation of the female parent to drought.