SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (AGI). (2000) Analysis of the genome of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408, 796815.
  • Almoguera C., Coca M.A. & Jordano J. (1996) Plant Molecular Biology 4, 10931099.
  • Alonso-Blanco C. & Koornneef M. (2000) Naturally occurring variation in Arabidopsis: an underexploited resource for plant genetics. Trends in Plant Science 5, 2229.
  • Alonso-Blanco C., Bentsink L., Hanhart C.J., Vries H.B.E. & Koornneef M. (2003) Analysis of natural allelic variation at seed dormancy loci of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 164, 711729.
  • Alonso-Blanco C., El-Assal E.-D., Coupland G. & Koornneef M. (1998) Analysis of natural allelic variation at flowering time loci in the Landsberg erecta and Cape Verde Islands ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 149, 749764.
  • Andalo C., Goldringer I. & Godelle B. (2001) Inter- and Intragenotypic competition under elevated carbon dioxide in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology 82, 157164.
  • Ballaré C.L. (2001) Arabidopsis mutants and other model systems in plant physiological ecology. Trends in Plant Science 6, 13601385.
  • Ballaré C.L. & Scopel A.L. (1997) Phytochrome signalling in plant canopies: testing its population-level implications with photoreceptor mutants of Arabidopsis. Functional Ecology 11, 441450.
  • Bergelson J., Kreitman M., Stahl E.A. & Tian D. (2001) Evolutionary dynamics of plant R-genes. Science 292, 22812285.
  • Blake W.J., Kaern M., Cantor C.R. & Collins J.J. (2003) Noise in eukaryotic gene expression. Nature 422, 633637.
  • Bones A.M. & Rossiter J.T. (1996) The myrosinase-glucosinolate sytem, its organization and biochemistry. Physiologia Plantarum 97, 194208.
  • Borevitz J.O., Maloof J.N., Lutes J., et al. (2002) Quantitative trait loci controlling light and hormone response in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 160, 683696.
  • Botto J.F., Alonso-Blanco C., Garzaron I., Sanchez R.A. & Casal J.J. (2003) The Cape Verde Islands allele of cryptochrome 2 enhances cotyledon unfolding in the absence of blue light in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 133, 15471556.
  • Botto J.F. & Smith H. (2002) Differential genetic variation in adaptive strategies to a common environmental signal in Arabidopsis accessions: phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 5363.
  • Bouché N. & Bouchez D. (2001) Arabidopsis gene knockout: phenotypes wanted. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 4, 111117.
  • Brautigam P.S. & Tonsor S.J. (2002) Mechanisms of resource competition in Arabidopsis thaliana . In Ecological Society of America Annual Meetings. Abstract reference no. BRA–1015–606907. http://abstracts.co.allenpress.com/pwcb/esa2002/document/?ID=17582
  • Burch C.L. & Chao L. (1999) Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus φ6. Genetics 151, 921927.
  • Caicedo A.L., Schaal B.A. & Kunkel B.N. (1999) Diversity and molecular evolution of the Rps2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96, 302306.
  • Chase J.M. & Leibold M.A. (2003) The Ecological Niche. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • Clarke J.H., Mithen R., Brown J.K.M. & Dean C. (1995) QTL analysis of flwoering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular and General Genetics 242, 8189.
  • Clerkx E.J.M., El-Lithy M.E., Vierling E., Ruys G.J., Blankestijn-De Vries H., Groot S.P.C., Vreugdenhil D. & Koornneef M. (2004) Analysis of natural allelic variation of Arabidopsis seed quality traits between the accessions Landsberg erecta and Shakdara, using a new recombinant inbred line population. Plant Physiology 135, 112.
  • Coca M.A., Almoguera C., Thomas T.L. & Jordano J. (1996) Plant Molecular Biology 31, 863866.
  • Coyne J.A., Barton N.H. & Turelli M. (2000) Is Wright's shifting balance process important in evolution? Evolution 54, 306317.
  • Cui J.P., Jander G., Racki L.R., Kim P.D., Piercec N.E. & Ausubel F.M. (2002) Signals involved in Arabidopsis resistance to Trichoplusia ni caterpillars induced by virulent and avirulent strains of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Plant Physiology 129, 551564.
  • Debeaujon I., Nesi N., Perez P., Devic M., Grandjean O., Caboche M. & Lepeniec L. (2003) Proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells in Arabidopsis testa: regulation of differentiation and role in seed development. Plant Cell 15, 25142531.
  • Donohue K. (2002) Germination timing influences natural selection on life-history characters in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology 83, 10061016.
  • El-Assal S.E.D., Alsonso-Blanco C., Peeeters A.J.M., Wagemaker C., Weller J.L. & Koornneef M. (2004) The role of cryptochrome 2 in flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 134, 539539.
  • Fisher R.A. (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Flor H.H. (1956) The complementary gene systems in flax and flax rust. Advances in Genetics 8, 2954.
  • Hirai M.Y., Yano M., Goodenowe D.B., Kanaya S., Kimura T., Awazuhara M., Arita M., Fujiwara T. & Saito K. (2004) Integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics for understanding of global responses to nutritional stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101, 1020510210.
  • Hodgson J.G., Wilson P.J., Hunt R., Grime J.P. & Thompson K. (1999) Allocating C-S-R plant functional types: a soft approach to a hard problem. Oikos 85, 282294.
  • Hoffmann A.A. (2002) Biogeography of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of BioGeography 29, 125134.
  • Hoffmann A.A. & Parsons P.A. (1991) Evolutionary Genetics of Environmental Stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford UK.
  • Hoffmann M.H. & Parsons P.A. (1997) Extreme Environmental Change and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Holub E.B. (2001) The arms race is ancient history in Arabidopsis, the wildflower. Nature Reviews Genetics 2, 516527.
  • Hong S.W. & Vierling E. (2000) Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in the acquisition of tolerance to high temperature stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97, 43924397.
  • Houle D. (1994) Genetic covariance of fitness correlates: What genetic correlations are made of and why it matters. Evolution 45, 630648.
  • Jakob K., Goss E.M., Van Araki H.T., Kreitman M. et al. (2002) Pseudomonas viridflava and P. syringae- natural pathogens of Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions 15, 11951203.
  • Jander G., Cui J.P., Nhan B., Peirce N.E. & Ausubel F.M. (2001) The tasty locus on chromosome 1 of Arabidopsis affects feeding of the insect herbivore Trichoplusia ni. Plant Physiology 126, 890898.
  • Jansen R.C., Van Ooijen J.W., Stam P., Lister C. & Dean C. (1995) Genotpe by environment interaction in genetic mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91, 3337.
  • Johanson U., West J., Lister C., Michaels S., Amasino R. & Dean C. (2000) Molecular analysis of FRIGIDA, a major determinant of natural variation in Arabidopsis flowering time. Science 290, 344347.
  • Jones D.A. & Jones J.D.G. (1997) The role of leucine-rich repeat proteins in plant defenses. Advances in Botanical Research 24, 89167.
  • Kalisz S. (1986) Variable selection on the timing of germination in Collinsia verna (Scrophulariaceae). Evolution 40, 479491.
  • Kao C.H., Zeng Z.B. & Teasdale R.D. (1999) Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci. Genetics 152, 12031216.
  • Kittelson P.M. & Maron J.L. (2001) Fine-scale genetically-based differentiation of life-history traits in the perennial shrub Lupinus arboreus. Evolution 55, 24292438.
  • Klekowski E.J.J. (1992) Review: mutation rates in diploid annuals- are they immutable? International Journal of Plant Science 153, 462465.
  • Kliebenstein D.J. (2004) Secondary metabolites and plant/environment interactions: a view through Arabidopsis thaliana tinged glasses. Plant, Cell and Environment 27, 675.
  • Kliebenstein D.J., Kroymann P., Brown A., Figuth D., Pedersen D., Gershenzon J. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2001a) Genetic control of natural variration in Arabidopsis glucosinolate accumulation. Plant Physiology 126, 811825.
  • Kliebenstein D.J., Lambrix V.M., Reichelt M., Gershenzon J. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2001b) Gene duplication in the diversitfication of secondary metabolism: Tandem 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases control flucosiinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 13, 681693.
  • Kliebenstein D., Pedersen D., Barker B. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2002) Comparative analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling glucosinolates, myrosinase and insect resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 161, 325332.
  • Knight T.M. & Chase J.M. (2003) Community genetics: toward a synthesis. Ecology 84, 580582.
  • Knight C.A. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2002) Chaperones as buffering agents? Science 296, 23482349.
  • Kobayashi Y. & Koyama H. (2002) QTL analysis of Al tolerance in recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology 43, 15261533.
  • Koornneef M., Alonso-Blanco C. & Vreugdenhil D. (2004) Naturally occurring genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Annual Review of Plant Biology 55, 141172.
  • Koornneef M., Blankestijn-De Vries H., Hanhart C.J., Soppe W.J.J. & Peeters A.J.M. (1994) The phenotype of some late-flowering mutants is enhanced by a locus on chormosome 5 that is not effective in the Landsberg erecta wild-type. Plant Journal 6, 911919.
  • Kowalski S.P., Lan T.H., Feldmann K.A. & Paterson A.H. (1994) QTL mapping of naturally-occuring variation in flowering time of Araboidopsis thaliana. Molecular and General Genetics 245, 548555.
  • Kuittinen H., Sillanpãã M.J. & Savolainen O. (1997) Genetic basis of adaptation: flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95, 573583.
  • Külheim C., Ågren J. & Jansson S. (2002) Rapid regulation of light harvesting and plant fitness in the field. Science 297, 9193.
  • Lande R. & Arnold S.J. (1983) The measurement of selection on correlated traits. Evolution 37, 12101226.
  • Le Corre V., Roux F. & Reboud X. (2002) DNA polymorphism at the FRIGIDA gene in Arabidopsis thaliana: extensive nonsynonymous vairation is consistent with local selection for flowering time. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19, 12611271.
  • Lee I., Aukerman M.J., Lohman K.N., Michaels S.D., Weaver L.M. et al. (1994) Isolation of LUMINIDEPENDENS: a gene involved in the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 6, 7583.
  • Lenski R.E. (1988) Experimental studies of pleiotropy and epistasis in Escherichia coli.2. Compensation for maladaptive effects associated with resistance to virus-T4. Evolution 42, 433440.
  • Loudet O., Chaillou S., Krapp A. & Daniel-Vedele F. (2003a) Quantitative trait loci analysis of water and anion contents in interaction with nitrogen availability in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 163, 711722.
  • Loudet O., Chaillou S., Merigout P., Talbotec J. & Daniel-Vedele F. (2003b) Quantitative trait loci analysis of nitrogen use efficiency in Arabidopsis. Genetics 131, 345358.
  • Lynch M. & Walsh B. (1998) Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
  • Maloof J.N., Borevitz J.O., Dabi T., et al. (2001) Natural variation in light sensitivity of Arabidopsis. Nature Genetics 29, 441446.
  • Mauricio R., Stahl E.A., Korves T., Tian D., Kreitman M. & Bergelson J. (2003) Natural selection for polymorphism in the disease resistance gene Rps2 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 163, 735746.
  • McKay J.K., Richards J.H. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2003) Genetics of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana: I. pleiotropy contributes to genetic correlations among ecological traits. Molecular Ecology 12, 11371151.
  • Meinke D.W., Cherry J.M., Dean C., Rounsley S.D. & Koornneef M. (1998) Arabidopsis thaliana: a model plant for genome analysis. Science 282, 662663.
  • Meinke D.W., Meinke L.K., Showalter T.C., Schissel A.M., Mueller L.A. & Tzafrir I. (2003) A sequence-based map of Arabidopsis genes with mutant phenotypes. Plant Physiology 131, 409418.
  • Michaels S.D. & Amasino R.M. (1999) Flowering Locus C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering. Plant Cell 11, 949956.
  • Michaels S.D., Hey Y.H., Scortecci K.C. & Amasino R.M. (2003) Attenuation of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity as a mechanism for the evolution of summer-annual flowering behavior in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100, 1010210107.
  • Mindrinos M., Katagiri F., Yu G.L. & Ausubel F.M. (1994) The A. thaliana disease resitance gene RPS-2 encodes a protein containing a nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats. Cell 78, 10891099.
  • Mitchell-Olds T. (1996) Genetic constraints on life history evolution: quantitative trait loci influencing growth and flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Evolution 50, 18491858.
  • Mitchell-Olds T. (2001) Arabidopsos thaliana and its wild relatives: a model system for ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 693700.
  • Moore F.B.-G., Rozen D.E. & Lenski R.E. (2000) Pervasive compensation for deleterious mutations in experimental populations of E. coli. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267, 515522.
  • Mouradov A., Cremer F. & Coupland G. (2002) Control of flowering time: Interacting pathways as a basis for diversity. Plant Cell 14(Suppl. S), S111S130.
  • Munir J., Dorn L.A., Donohue K. & Schmitt J. (2001) The effect of maternal photperiod on seasonal dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana. American Journal of Botany 88, 12401247.
  • Murren C.J., Pendleton N. & Pigliucci M. (2002) Evolution of phenotypic integration in Brassica. American Journal of Botany 89, 655663.
  • Narusaka Y., Nakashima K., Shinwari Z.K., et al. (2003) Interaction between two cis-acting elements, ABRE and DRE, in ABA-dependent expression of Arabidopsis rd29A gene in response to dehydration and high-salinity stresses. Plant Journal 34, 137148.
  • Nordborg M., Borevitz J.O., Bergelson J., et al. (2002) The extent of linkage disequuilibrium in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature Genetics 30, 190193.
  • Oono Y., Seki M., Nanjo T., et al. (2003) Monitoring expression profiles of Arabidopsis gene expressionduring rehydration process after dehydration using ca. 7000 full-length cDNA microarray. Plant Journal 34, 868887.
  • Østergaard L. & Yanofsky M.F. (2004) Establishing gene function by mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 39, 682696.
  • Phillips P.C. (1998) The language of gene interaction. Genetics 149, 11671171.
  • Pigliucci M. (2003) Selection in a model system: ecological genetics of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology 84, 17001712.
  • Pigliucci M.S. & Schmitt J. (1999) Genes affecting phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis: pleiotropic effects and reproductive fitness of photmorphogenic mutants. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12, 551562.
  • Pla M., Huguet G., Verdaguer D., Puigderrajols P., Llompart B., Nadal A. & Molinas M. (1998) Stress proteins co-expressed in suberized and lignified cells and in apical meristems. Plant Science 139, 4957.
  • Podolsky R.H. & Holtsford T.P. (1995) Population structure of mophological traits in Clarkia dudleyana 1. Comparison of FST between allozymes and morphological traits. Genetics 140, 733744.
  • Provine W. (1971) The Origins of Population Genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • Purugganan M. & Gibson G. (2003) Merging ecology, molecular evolution and functional genetics. Molecular Ecology 12, 11091112.
  • Queitsch C., Hong S., Vierling E. & Linquist S. (2000) Heat shock protein 101 plays a crucial role in thermal protection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 12, 479492.
  • Queitsch C., Sangster T.A. & Lindquist S. (2002) Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation. Nature 417, 618624.
  • Rauh B.L., Basten C. & Buckler E.S. (2002) Quantitative trait loci analysis of growth response to varying nitrogen sources in Arabidopsis thaliana. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104, 743750.
  • Roff D. (1997) Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Sax K. (1923) The association of size differences with seed-coat pattern and pigmentation in Phaseolus vulgaris. Genetics 8, 552560.
  • Schlichting C.D. & Pigliucci M. (1998) Phenotypic Evolution: a Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
  • Schmid K.J., Sorensen T.R., Stracke R., Torjek O., Altmann T., Mitchell-Olds T. & Weisshaar B. (2003) Large-scale identification and analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms for mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome Research 13, 12501257.
  • Schmitt J., Dudley S.A. & Pigliucci M. (1999) Manipulative approaches to testing adaptive plasticity: Phytochrome-mediated shade-avoidance responses in plants. American Naturalist 154, S43S54.
  • Schulz S.T., Lynch M. & Willis J.H. (1999) Spontaneous deleterious mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96, 1139311398.
  • Sharma R.K., Griffing B. & Scholl R.L. (1979) Variation among races of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh for survival in limited carbon dioxide. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 54, 1115.
  • Shaw R.G., Byers D.L. & Darmo E. (2000) Spontaneous mutational effects on reproductive traits of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 155, 369378.
  • Shaw F.H., Geyer C.J. & Shaw R.G. (2002) A comprehensive model of mutations affecting fitness and inferences for Arabidopsis thaliana. Evolution 56, 453463.
  • Sheldon C.C., Rouse D.T., Finnegan E.J., Peacock W.J. & Dennis E.S. (2000) The molecular basis of vernalization: The central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97, 37533758.
  • Shinozaki K., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K. & Seki M. (2003) Regulatory network of gene expression in the drought and cold stress responses. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 410417.
  • Simpson G.G. & Dean C. (2002) Flowering –Arabidopsis, the rosetta stone of flowering time? Science 296, 285289.
  • Smith H. (1995) Physiological and ecological function within the phytochrome family. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 46, 289315.
  • Smith S.E. & Macnair M.R. (1998) Hypostatic modifiers cause variation in degree of copper tolerance in Mimulus guttatus. Heredity 80, 760768.
  • Smouse P.E., Dyer R.J., Westfall R.D. & Sork V.L. (2001) Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. I. Male game heterogeneity among females. Evolution 55, 260271.
  • Somerville C. & Koornneef M. (2002) A fortunate choice: the history of Arabidopsis as a model plant. Nature Reviews in Genetics 3, 883889.
  • Stahl E., Dwyer G., Mauricio R., Kreitman M. & Bergelson J. (1999) Dynamics of disease resistance polymoprhism at the RPM1 locus of Arabidopsis. Nature 400, 667671.
  • Stanton M.L., Roy B.A. & Thiede D.A. (2000) Evolution in stressfull environments. I. Phenotypic variability, phenotypic selection, and response to selection in five distinct environmental stresses. Evolution 54, 93111.
  • Stotz H.U., Pittendrigh B.R., Kroymann J., Weniger K., Bauke F.J., Bauke A. & Mitchell-Olds T. (2000) Induced plant defense responses against chewing insects. Ethylene signaling reduces resistance of Arabidopsis against Egyptian cotton worm but not diamondback moth. Plant Physiology 124, 10071017.
  • Stratton D. (1998) REaction norm functions and ATL–environment interactions for flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Heredity 81, 144155.
  • Sun W., Van Montague M. & Verbruggen N. (2002) Small heat shock proteins and stress tolerance in plants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1577, 19.
  • Sun W., Bernard C., Van De Cotte B., Van Montagu M. & Verbruggen N. (2001) At-HSP17.6A, encoding a small heat-shock protein in Arabidopsis, can enhance osmotolerance upon over-expression. Plant Journal 27, 407415.
  • Sun J., Gibson K.M., Kiirats O., Okita T.W. & Edwards G.E. (2002) Interactions of nitrate and CO2 enrichment on growth, carbohydrates and rubisco in Arabidopsis starch mutants. Significance of starch and hexose. Plant Physiology 130, 15731583.
  • Sung D.-Y., Kaplan F., Lee K.-J. & Guy C.L. (2003) Acquired tolerance to temperature extremes. Trends in Plant Science 8, 179187.
  • Swarrup K., Alonso-Blanco C., Lynn J.R., Michaels S.D., Amasino R.M., Koornneef M. & Millar A.J. (1999) Natural allelic variation identifies new genes in the Arabidopsis circadian system. Plant Journal 20, 6777.
  • Tepperman J.M., Zhu T., Chang H.-S., Wang X. & Quail P.H. (2001) Multiple transcription-factor genes are early targets of phytochrome A signalling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98, 94379442.
  • Tian D., Traw M.B., Chen J.Q., Kreitman M. & Bergelson J. (2003) Fitness costs of R-gene-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 423, 7477.
  • Tilman D. & Lehman C. (2001) Human-caused environmental change: Impacts on plant diversity and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98, 54335440.
  • Tilman D., Reich P.B., Knops J., Wedin D., Mielke T. & Lehman C. (2001) Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294, 843845.
  • Traw M.B., Kim J., Enright S.D., Cipollini F. & Bergelson J. (2003) Negative cross-talk between salicylate- andjasmonate-mediated pathways in the Wassilewskija ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Ecology 12, 11251135.
  • Van der Schaar W., Alonso-Blanco C., Léon-Kloosterziel K.M., Jansen R.C., Van Ooijen J.W. & Koornneef M. (1997) QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping. Heredity 79, 190200.
  • Wade M.J. (1984) The effects of genotypic interactions on evolution in structured populations. In Genetics: New Frontiers, Proceedings of the XV International Congress on Genetics (eds V.L. Chopra, B.C. Joshi, R.P. Sharma & H.C. Bensal), Oxford and I.B.H. Publishing Co., New Delhi, India, pp. 283290.
  • Wade M.J. & Goodnight C.J. (1998) The theories of Fisher and Wright in the context of metapopulations: when nature does many small experiments. Evolution 52, 15371553.
  • Wagner G.P. (1996) Homologues, natural kinds and the evolution of modularity. American Zoology 26, 3643.
  • Ward J.K. & Strain B.R. (1997) The effects of low and elevated CO2 partial pressure on grwoth and reproduction of Arabidopsis thaliana from different elevations. Plant, Cell and Environment 20, 254260.
  • Ward J.K., Antonovics J., Thomas R.B. & Strain B.R. (2000) Is atmospheric CO2 a selective agent on model C3 annuals? Oecologia 123, 330341.
  • Weinig C., Stinchcombe J.R. & Schmitt J. (2003) QTL architecture of resistance and tolerance traits in Arabidopsis thaliana in natural environments. Molecular Ecology 12, 11531163.
  • Weinig C., Ungerer M.C., Dorn L.A., Kane N.C., Toyonago Y., Halldorsdottir S.S., Mackay T.F.C., Purugganan M.D. & Schmitt J. (2002) Novel loci control variation in reproductive timing in Arabidopsis thaliana in natural environments. Genetics 162, 18751884.
  • Whitlock M.C. & Otto S.P. (1999) The panda and the phage: compensatory mutations and the persistence of small populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 295296.
  • Whitlock M.C. & Phillips P.C. (2000) The exquisite corpse: a shifting view of the shifting balance. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15, 347348.
  • Whitlock M.C., Phillips P.C., Moore F.B.G. & Tonsor S.J. (1995) Multiple fitness peaks and epistasis. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26, 601605.
  • Wolf J.B., Brodie E.D. & Wade M.J. (eds) (2000) Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
  • Woodward F.I., Lake J.A. & Quick W.P. (2002) Stomatal development and CO2: ecological consequences. New Phytologist 153, 477484.
  • Yano M. (2001) Genetic and molecular dissection of naturally occurring variation. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 4, 130135.
  • Zhang J. & Lechowicz M.J. (1995) Response to CO2 enrichment by two genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana differing in their sensitivity to nutrient availability. Annals of Botany 75, 491499.
  • Zhu J.K. (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology 53, 247273.
  • Ziegelhoffer E.C. Medrano L.J. & Meyerowitz E.M. (2000) Cloning of the Arabidopsis WIGGUM gene identifies a role for farnesylation in meristem development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97, 7633.