SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Apple M.E., Olszyk D.M., Ormrod D.P., Lewis J., Southworth D. & Tingey D.T. (2000) Morphology and stomatal function of Douglas fir needles exposed to climate change: elevated CO2 and temperature. International Journal of Plant Science 161 , 127132.
  • Apple M., Tiekotter K., Snow M., Young J., Soeldner A., Phillips D., Tingey D. & Bond B. (2002) Needle anatomy changes with increasing tree age in Douglas-fir. Tree Physiology 22 , 129136.
  • Beerling D.J. (1997) Carbon isotope discrimination and stomatal responses of mature Pinus sylvestris L. trees exposed in situ for three years to elevated CO2 and temperature. Acta Oecologica 18 , 697712.
  • Beerling D.J. & Chaloner W.G. (1993) The impact of atmospheric CO2 and temperature change on stomatal density: observations from Quercus robur lammas leaves. Annals of Botany 71 , 231235.
  • Bonan G.B. & Van Cleve K. (1992) Soil temperature, nitrogen mineralization, and carbon source-sink relationship in boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22 , 629639.
  • Bosabalidis A.M. & Kofidis G. (2002) Comparative effects of drought stress on leaf anatomy of two olive cultivars. Plant Science 163 , 375379.
  • Brown P.H. & Shelp B.J. (1997) Boron mobility in plants. Plant and Soil 193 , 85101.
  • Conroy J.P., Milham P.J. & Barlow E.W.R. (1992) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the growth response of Eucalyptus grandis to high CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 15 , 843847.
  • Conroy J.P., Milham P.J., Reed M.L. & Barlow E.W. (1990) Increases in phosphorus requirements for CO2-enriched pine species. Plant Physiology 92 , 977982.
  • Curtis P.S. & Wang X. (1998) A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113 , 299313.
  • DeLucia E.H., Callaway R.M., Thomas E.M. & Schlesinger W.H. (1997) Mechanisms of phosphorus acquisition for ponderosa pine seedlings under high CO2 and temperature. Annals of Botany 79 , 11120.
  • Engloner A.I., Kovács D., Balogh J. & Tuba Z. (2003) Anatomical and ecophysiological changes in leaves of couch-grass (Elymus repens L.), a temperate loess grassland species, after 7 years growth under elevated CO2 concentration. Photosynthetica 41 , 185189.
  • Evans J.R. (1989) Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78 , 919.
  • Ewers F.W. (1982) Secondary growth in needle leaves of Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone pine) and other conifers: quantitative data. American Journal of Botany 69 , 15521559.
  • Ferris R., Long L., Bunn S.M., Robinson K.M., Bradshaw H.D., Rae A.M. & Taylor G. (2002) Leaf stomatal and epidermal cell development: identification of putative quantitative trait loci in relation to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in poplar. Tree Physiology 22 , 633640.
  • Ferris R., Nijs I., Behaeghe T. & Impens I. (1996) Elevated CO2 and temperature have different effects on leaf anatomy of perennial ryegrass in spring and summer. Annals of Botany 78 , 489497.
  • Ferris R., Sabatti M., Miglietta F., Mills R.F. & Taylor G. (2001) Leaf area is stimulated in Populus by free air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE), through increased cell expansion and production. Plant, Cell and Environment 24 , 305315.
  • Ferris R. & Taylor G. (1994) Stomatal characteristics of four native herbs following exposure to elevated CO2. Annals of Botany 73 , 447453.
  • Hansen J. & Møller I. (1975) Percolation of starch and soluble carbohydrates from plant tissue for quantitative determination with anthrone. Analytical Biochemistry 68 , 8794.
  • Helmisaari H.-S. (1990) Temporal variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 5 , 177193.
  • Hobbie E.A., Olszyk D.M., Rygiewicz P.T., Tingey D.T. & Johnson M.G. (2001) Foliar nitrogen concentrations and natural abundance of 15N suggest nitrogen allocation patterns of Douglas-fir and mycorrhizal fungi during development in elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Tree Physiology 21 , 11131122.
  • Hultine K.R. & Marshall J.D. (2000) Altitude trends in conifer leaf morhology and stable carbon isotope composition. Oecologia 123 , 3240.
  • IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. In Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assesment Report of the Intergovernemntal Panel on Climate Change (eds J.T.Houghton, Y.Ding, D.J.Griggs, M.Noguer, P.J.Van Der Linden, X.Dai, K.Maskell & D.A.Johnson), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York.
  • Johnson D.W., Ball T. & Walker R.F. (1995) Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on nutrient uptake in pondrosa pine seedlings. Plant Soil 168–169 , 535545.
  • Jokela A., Sarjala T. & Huttunen S. (1998) The structure and hardening status of Scots pine needles at different potassium availability levels. Trees 12 , 490498.
  • Junttila O. (1986) Effects of temperature on shoot growth in northern provenances of Pinus sylvestris L. Tree Physiology 1 , 185192.
  • Junttila O. & Heide O.M. (1981) Shoot and needle growth in Pinus sylvestris as related to temperature in Northern Fennoscandia. Forest Science 27 , 423430.
  • Kellomäki S. & Väisänen H. (1997) Modelling the dynamics of the forest ecosystem for climatic change studies in the boreal conditions. Ecological Modelling 97 , 121140.
  • Kellomäki S. & Wang K.-Y. (1997) Effects of long-term CO2 and temperature elevation on crown nitrogen distribution and daily photosynthetic performance of Scots pine. Forest Ecology and Management 99 , 309326.
  • Kellomäki S. & Wang K.-Y. (1998a) Growth, respiration and nitrogen content in needles of Scots pine exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in the field. Environmental Polution 101 , 263274.
  • Kellomäki S. & Wang K.-Y. (1998b) Sap flow in Scots pines growing under conditions of year-round carbon dioxide enrichment and temperature elevation. Plant, Cell and Environment 21 , 969981.
  • Kellomäki S. & Wang K.-Y. (2000) Modelling and measuring transpiration from Scots pine with increased temperature and carbon dioxide enrichment. Annals of Botany 85 , 263278.
  • Kellomäki S. & Wang K.-Y. (2001) Growth and resource use of birch seedlings under elevated carbon dioxide and temperature. Annals of Botany 87 , 669682.
  • Kellomäki S., Wang K.-Y. & Lemettinen M. (2000) Controlled environment chambers for investigating tree response to elevated CO2 and temperature under boreal conditions. Photosynthetica 38 , 6981.
  • Kilpeläinen A., Peltola H., Ryyppö A. & Kellomäki S. (2005) Scots pine responses to elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration: growth and wood properties. Tree Physiology 25 , 7583.
  • Kinsman E.A., Lewis C., Davies M.S., Young J.E., Francis D., Thomas I.D., Chorlton K.H. & Ougham H.J. (1996) Effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on cell division in shoot meristems: differential responses of two natural populations of Dactylis glomerata L. Plant, Cell and Environment 19 , 775780.
  • Kivimäenpää M. (2003) The Cell and Tissue Structures of Norway Spruce and Scots Pine Needles as Tools for the Diagnosis of Ozone Impact. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
  • Körner C. & Larcher W. (1988) Plant life in cold climates. In Plants and Temperature (eds S.P.Long & F.I.Woodward), pp. 2557. Society for Experimental Biology, Cambridge, UK.
  • Laitinen K., Luomala E.-M., Kellomäki S. & Vapaavuori E. (2000) Carbon assimilation and nitrogen in needles of fertilized and unfertilized field-grown Scots pine at natural and elevated concentrations of CO2. Tree Physiology 20 , 881892.
  • Lambers H., Chapin F.S. III & Pons T.L. (1998) Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer-Verlag, York, PA, USA.
  • Lehto T., Kallio E. & Aphalo P.J. (2000) Boron mobility in two coniferous species. Annals of Botany 86 , 547550.
  • Lin J., Jach M.E. & Ceulemans R. (2001) Stomatal density and needle anatomy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are effected by elevated CO2. New Phytologist 150 , 665674.
  • Linder S. (1995) Foliar analysis for detecting and correcting nutrient imbalances in Norway spruce. Ecological Bulletins 44 , 178190.
  • Loveys B.R., Scheurwater I., Pons T.L., Fitter A.H. & Atkin O.K. (2002) Growth temperature influences the underlying components of relative growth rate: an investigation using inherently fast- and slow-growing plant species. Plant, Cell and Environment 25 , 975987.
  • Luomala E.-M., Laitinen K., Vapaavuori E. & Kellomäki S. (2003) Variable photosynthetic acclimation in consecutive cohorts of Scots pine needles during three years of growth at elevated CO2 and elevated temperature. Plant, Cell and Environment 26 , 645660.
  • Marschner H. (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Masle J. (2000) The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division rates, growth patterns, and blade anatomy in young wheat plants are modulated by factors related to leaf positon, vernalization, and genotype. Plant Physiology 122 , 13991415.
  • Medlyn B.E., Badeck F.-W., De Pury D.G.G., et al. (1999) Effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis in European forest species: a meta-analysis of model parameters. Plant, Cell and Environment 22 , 14751495.
  • Morgan J.A., Hunt H.W., Monz C.A. & Lecain D.R. (1994) Consequences of growth at two carbon dioxide concentrations and two temperatures for leaf gas exchange in Pascopyrum smithii (C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4). Plant, Cell and Environment 17 , 10231033.
  • Morison J.I.L. & Lawlor D.W. (1999) Interctions between increasing CO2 concentration and temperature on plant growth. Plant, Cell and Environment 22 , 659682.
  • Niinistö S.M., Silvola J. & Kellomäki S. (2004) Soil CO2 efflux in a boreal pine forest under atmospheric CO2 enrichment and air warming. Global Change Biology 10 , 13631376.
  • Oksanen E., Häikiö E., Sober J. & Karnosky D. (2004) Ozone-induced H2O2 accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity. New Phytologist 161 , 791799.
  • Oksanen E., Sober J. & Karnosky D.F. (2001) Impacts of elevated CO2 and ozone in leaf morphology of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and birch (Betula papyrifera) in Aspen FACE experiment. Environmental Pollution 115 , 437446.
  • Oleksyn J., Reich P., Zytkowiak R., Karolewski P. & Tjoelker M.G. (2002) Needle nutrients in geographically diverse Pinus sylvestris L. populations. Annals of Forest Science 59 , 118.
  • Olszyk D., Wise C., VanEss E., Apple M. & Tingey D. (1998) Phenology and growth of shoots, needles, and buds of Douglas-fir seedlings with elevated CO2 (or) temperature. Canadian Journal of Botany 76 , 19912001.
  • Pääkkönen E., Vahala J., Pohjola M., Holopainen T. & Kärenlampi L. (1998) Physiological, stomatal and ultrastructural ozone responses in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) are modified by water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 21 , 671684.
  • Poole I., Weyers J.D.B., Lawson T. & Raven J.A. (1996) Variations in stomatal density and index: iplications for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Plant, Cell and Environment 19 , 705712.
  • Poorter H., Van Berkel Y., Baxter R., Den Hertog J., Dijkstra P., Gifford R.M., Griffin K.L., Roumet C., Roy J. & Wong S.C. (1997) The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species. Plant, Cell and Environment 20 , 472482.
  • Pritchard S.G., Peterson C.M., Prior S.A. & Rogers H.H. (1997) Elevated atmospheric CO2 differentially affects needle chloroplast ultrastructure and phloem anatomy in Pinus palustris: interactions with soil resource availability. Plant, Cell and Environment 20 , 461471.
  • Radoglou K.M. & Jarvis P.G. (1992) The effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrient supply on growth morphology and anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings. Annals of Botany 70 , 245256.
  • Reddy K.R., Robana R.R., Hodges H.F., Liu X.J. & McKinion J.M. (1998) Interactions of CO2 enrichment and temperature on cotton growth and leaf characteristics. Environmental and Experimental Botany 39 , 117129.
  • Retallack G.J. (2001) A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 411 , 287290.
  • Roberntz P. & Linder S. (1999) Effects of long-term CO2 enrichment and nutrient availability in Norway spruce. II. Foliar chemistry. Trees 14 , 1727.
  • Royer D.L. (2001) Stomatal density and stomatal index as indicators of paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 114 , 128.
  • Royer D.L., Wing S.L., Beerling D.J., Jolley D.W., Koch P.L., Hickey L.J. & Berner R.A. (2001) Paleobotanical evidence for near present-day levels of atmospheric CO2 during part of the tertiary. Science 292 , 23102313.
  • Rustad L.E., Campbell J.L., Marion G.M., Norby R.J., Mitchell M.J., Hartley A.E., Cornelissen & J.H.C., Gurevitch J. GCTE-NEWS. (2001) A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126 , 543562.
  • Sallas L., Luomala E.-M., Utriainen J., Kainulainen P. & Holopainen J.K. (2003) Contrasting effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment and elevated temperature on Rubisco activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle ultrastructure and secondary metabolites in conifer seedlings. Tree Physiology 23 , 97108.
  • Sigurdsson B.D. (2001) Environmental Control of Carbon Uptake and Growth in a Populus trichocarpa Plantation in Iceland. PhD Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
  • Soikkeli S. (1980) Ultrastructure of the mesophyll in Scots pine and Norway spruce: seasonal variation and molarity of fixative buffer. Protoplasma 103 , 241252.
  • Steen E. & Larsson K. (1986) Carbohydrates in roots and rhizomes of perennial grasses. New Phytologist 104 , 339346.
  • Sutinen S. (1987) Cytology of Norway spruce needles. I. Changes during ageing. European Journal of Forest Pathology 17 , 6573.
  • Taylor G., Ranasinghe S., Bosac C., Gardner S.D.L. & Ferris R. (1994) Elevated CO2 and plant growth: cellular mechanisms and responses of whole plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 45 , 17611774.
  • Tognetti R., Sebastiani L., Vitagliano C., Raschi A. & Minnocci A. (2001) Responses of two olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cultivars to elevated CO2 concentration in the field. Photosynthetica 39 , 403410.
  • Vanhatalo M., Huttunen S. & Bäck J. (2001) Effects of elevated [CO2] and O3 on stomatal and surface wax characteristics in leaves of pubescent birch grown under field conditions. Trees 15 , 304313.
  • Visser A.J., Tosserams M., Groen M.W., Kalis G., Kwant R., Magendans G.W.H. & Rozema J. (1997) The combined effects of CO2 concentration and enhanced UV-B radiation on faba bean. 3. Leaf optical properties, pigments, stomatal index and epidermal cell density. Plant Ecology 128 , 209222.
  • Wang K.-Y., Kellomäki S., Li C. & Zha T. (2003) Light and water-use efficiencies of pine shoots exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature. Annals of Botany 92 , 5364.
  • Wilson C.L., Pusey P.L. & Otto B.E. (1981) Plant epidermal sections and imprints using yanoacrylate adhesives. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 61 , 781782.
  • Woodward F.I. & Bazzaz F.A. (1988) The responses of stomatal density to CO2 partial pressure. Journal of Experimental Botany 39 , 17711781.
  • Woodward F.I. & Kelly C.K. (1995) The influence of CO2 concentration on stomatal density. New Phytologist 131 , 311327.
  • Yin X. (2002) Responses of leaf nitrogen concentration and specific leaf area to atmospheric CO2 enrichment: a retrospective synthesis across 62 species. Global Change Biology 8 , 631642.