SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adams D.C., Gurevitch J. & Rosenberg M.S. (1997) Resampling tests for meta-analysis of ecological data. Ecology 78, 12771283.
  • Ainsworth E.A., Davey P.A., Bernacchi C.J., et al. (2002) A meta-analysis of elevated [CO2] effects on soybean (Glycine max) physiology, growth and yield. Global Change Biology 8, 115.
  • Albaugh T.J., Mowry F.L. & Kress L.W. (1992) A field chamber for testing air pollution effects on mature trees. Journal of Environmental Quality 21, 476485.
  • Amthor J.S. & Cumming J.R. (1988) Low levels of ozone increase bean leaf maintenance respiration. Canadian Journal of Botany 66, 724726.
  • Bailar J.C. III. (1997) The promise and problems of meta-analysis. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 559561.
  • Balaguer L., Barnes J.D., Panicucci A. & Borland A.M. (1995) Production and utilization of assimilates in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves exposed to elevated O3 and/or CO2. New Phytologist 129, 557568.
  • Barnes R.L. (1972) Effects of chronic exposure to ozone on photosynthesis and respiration of pines. Environmental Pollution 3, 133138.
  • Barnes J.D., Ollerenshaw J.H. & Whitfield C.P. (1995) Effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on growth, development and physiology of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Global Change Biology 1, 129142.
  • Blum U., Mrozek E. Jr. & Johnson. E. (1983) Investigation of ozone (O3) effects on 14C distribution in ladino clover. Environmental and Experimental Botany 23, 369378.
  • Booker F.L., Miller J.E., Fiscus E.L., Pursley W.A. & Stefanski L.A. (2005) Comparative responses of container- versus ground-grown soybean to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Crop Science 45, 883895.
  • Broadmeadow M.S.J. & Jackson S.B. (2000) Growth responses of Quercus petraea, Fraxinus excelsior and Pinus sylvestris to elevated carbon dioxide, ozone and water supply. New Phytologist 146, 437451.
  • Brouwer R. (1983) Functional equilibrium: sense or nonsense? Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 31, 335348.
  • Bungener P., Nussbaum S., Grub A. & Fuhrer J. (1999) Growth response of grassland species to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and plant strategy. New Phytologist 142, 283293.
  • Cahill J.F. Jr. (2002) What evidence is necessary in studies which separate root and shoot competition along productivity gradients? Journal of Ecology 90, 201205.
  • Causton D.R. & Venus J.C. (1981) The Biometry of Plant Growth. Edward Arnold, London, England.
  • Chappelka A.H. & Chevone B.I. (1988) Growth and physiological responses of yellow-poplar seedlings exposed to ozone and simulated acidic rain. Environmental Pollution 49, 118.
  • Chappelka A.H. & Samuelson L.J. (1998) Ambient ozone effects on forest trees of the eastern United States: a review. New Phytologist 139, 91108.
  • Chappelka A.H., Chevone B.I. & Burk T.E. (1988) Growth response of green and white ash seedlings to ozone, sulphur dioxide and simulated acid rain. Forest Science 34, 10161029.
  • Coleman M.D., Dickson R.E., Isebrands J.G. & Karnosky D.F. (1995) Carbon allocation and partitioning in aspen clones varying in sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. Tree Physiology 15, 593604.
  • Coleman M.D., Dickson R.E., Isebrands J.G. & Karnosky D.F. (1996) Root growth and physiology of potted and field-grown trembling aspen exposed to tropospheric ozone. Tree Physiology 16, 145152.
  • Cooley D.R. & Manning W.J. (1987) The impact of ozone on assimilate partitioning in plants: a review. Environmental Pollution 47, 95113.
  • Cooley D.R. & Manning W.J. (1988) Ozone effects on growth and assimilate partitioning in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. Environmental Pollution 49, 1936.
  • Curtis P.S. & Wang X. (1998) A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113, 299313.
  • Darrall N.M. (1989) The effect of air pollutants on physiological processes in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 12, 130.
  • Davison A.W. & Barnes J.D. (1998) Effects of ozone on wild plants. New Phytologist 139, 135151.
  • Dickson R.E., Coleman M.D., Riemenschneider D.E., et al. (1997) Ozone-induced accumulation of carbohydrates changes enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism in birch leaves. New Phytologist 137, 673680.
  • Dickson R.E., Coleman M.D., Riemenschneider D.E., Isebrands J.G., Hogan G.D. & Karnosky D.F. (1998) Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28, 17061716.
  • Elagoz V. & Manning W.J. (2002) Ozone and bean plants: morphology matters. Environmental Pollution 120, 521524.
  • Emberson L., Ashmore M. & Murray F. (2003) Air Pollution Impacts on Crops and Forests: A Global Assessment. Imperial College Press, London, England.
  • Farage P.K. & Long S.P. (1995) An in vivo analysis of photosynthesis during short-term O3 exposure in three contrasting species. Photosynthesis Research 43, 1118.
  • Farage P.K., Long S.P., Lechner E.G. & Baker N.R. (1991) The sequence of change within the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat following short-term exposure to ozone. Plant Physiology 95, 529535.
  • Farrar J.F. & Gunn S. (1996) Effects of temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide on source–sink relations in the context of climate change. In Photoassimilate Distribution in Plants and Crops: Source–Sink Relationships (eds E.Zamski & A.A. Schaffer), pp. 389406. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.
  • Farrar J.F. & Gunn S. (1998) Allocation: allometry, acclimation – and alchemy. In Inherent Variation in Plant Growth. Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences (eds H.Lambers, H.Poorter & M.M.I. Van Vuren), pp. 183198. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  • Fernandez-Bayon J.M., Barnes J.D., Ollerenshaw J.H. & Davison A.W. (1993) Physiological effects of ozone on cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) widely grown in Spain. Environmental Pollution 81, 199206.
  • Flagler R.B. (1998) Recognition of Air Pollution Injury to Vegetation: A Pictorial Atlas, 2nd edn. Air and Waste Management Assoc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
  • Foot J.P., Caporn S.J.M., Lee J.A. & Ashenden T.W. (1996) The effect of long-term ozone fumigation on the growth, physiology and frost sensitivity of Calluna vulgaris. New Phytologist 133, 503511.
  • Forberg E., Aarnes H. & Nilsen S. (1987) Effects of ozone on net photosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa) and duckweed (Lemna gibba). Environmental Pollution 47, 285291.
  • Fowler D., Cape J.N., Coyle M., Flechard C., Kuylenstierna J., Hicks K., Derwent D., Johnson C. & Stevenson D. (1999) The global exposure of forests to air pollutants. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 116, 532.
  • Franzaring J., Tonneijk A.E.G., Kooijman A.W.N. & Dueck ThA. (2000) Growth responses to ozone in plant species from wetlands. Environmental and Experimental Botany 44, 3948.
  • Fuhrer J. (1994) Effects of ozone on managed pasture. I. Influence of open-top chambers on microclimate, ozone flux, and plant growth. Environmental Pollution 86, 297305.
  • Gimeno B.S., Bermejo V., Sanz J., De La Torre D. & Elvira S. (2004) Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures. Environmental Pollution 132, 297306.
  • Grantz D.A. & Farrar J.F. (1999) Acute exposure to ozone inhibits rapid carbon translocation from source leaves of pima cotton. Journal of Experimental Botany 50, 12531262.
  • Grantz D.A. & Farrar J.F. (2000) Ozone inhibits phloem loading from a transport pool: compartmental efflux analysis in pima cotton. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 859868.
  • Grantz D.A. & Yang S. (1996) Effects of O3 on hydraulic architecture in pima cotton: biomass allocation and water transport capacity of roots and shoots. Plant Physiology 112, 16491657.
  • Grantz D.A. & Yang S. (2000) Ozone impacts on allometry and root hydraulic conductance are not mediated by source limitation nor developmental age. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 919927.
  • Grimmig B., Gonzalez-Perez M.N., Leubner-Metzger G., et al. (2003) Ozone-induced gene expression occurs via ethylene-dependent and -independent signaling. Plant Molecular Biology 51, 599607.
  • Grulke N.E. & Balduman L. (1999) Deciduous conifers: high N deposition and O3 exposure effects on growth and biomass allocation in ponderosa pine. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 116, 235248.
  • Guidi L., Panicucci A., Lorenzini G. & Soldatini G.F. (1993) Ozone-induced changes in chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics and CO2 assimilation in Vicia faba. Journal of Plant Physiology 141, 545550.
  • Guidi L., Nali C., Ciompi S., Lorenzini G. & Soldatini G.F. (1997) The use of chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf gas exchange as methods for studying the different responses to ozone of two bean cultivars. Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 173179.
  • Guidi L., Tonini M. & Soldatini G.F. (2000) Effects of high light and ozone fumigation on photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 38, 717725.
  • Gunn S. & Farrar J.F. (1999) Effects of a 4 °C increase in temperature on three native British species. Partitioning of leaf area and dry weight, root respiration and carbohydrates. Functional Ecology 13, 1220.
  • Gunn S., Bailey S.J. & Farrar J.F. (1999) Partitioning of dry weight and leaf area within plants of three native species grown at elevated CO2. Functional Ecology 13, 311.
  • Gurevitch J. & Hedges L.V. (1999) Statistical issues in ecological meta-analyses. Ecology 80, 11421149.
  • Hanson G.P. & Stewart W.S. (1970) Photochemical oxidants: effect on starch hydrolysis in leaves. Science 168, 12231224.
  • Den Hartog J., Stulen I., Fonseca F. & Delea P. (1996) Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO2: impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift. Physiologia Plantarum 98, 7788.
  • Hassan I.A. (2004) Interactive effects of salinity and ozone pollution on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, growth, and assimilate partitioning of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Photosynthetica 42, 111116.
  • Heagle A.S., Philbeck R.B. & Heck W.W. (1973) An open-top chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants. Journal of Environmental Quality 2, 365368.
  • Heagle A.S., Kress L.W., Temple P.J., Kohut R.J., Miller J.E. & Heggestad H.E. (1988) Factors influencing ozone dose-yield response relationships in open-top field chamber studies. In Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants. Proceedings of an International Conference, October 1987 (eds W.W.Heck, O.C.Taylor & D.T. Tingey), pp. 141179. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.
  • Heath R.L. (1980) Initial events in injury to plants by air pollutants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 31, 395431.
  • Heck W.W., Taylor O.C. & Tingey D.T. (1988) Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants. Proceedings of an International Conference, Raleigh, NC, USA, 25–29 October 1987. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.
  • Hedges L.V., Gurevich J. & Curtis P.S. (1999) The meta-analysis of response ratios in experimental ecology. Ecology 80, 11501156.
  • Holt D.A. (1988) Crop assessment: international needs and opportunities. In Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants. Proceedings of an International Conference, October 1987, Raleigh, NC, USA (eds W.W.Heck, O.C.Taylor & D.T. Tingey), pp. 107138. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.
  • Hunt R. (1990) Basic Growth Analysis. Unwin-Hyman, London, England.
  • Hunt R. & Cornelissen J.H.C. (1997) Components of relative growth rate and their interrelations in 59 temperate plant species. New Phytologist 135, 395417.
  • Isebrands J.G., McDonald E.P., Kruger E., Hendrey G., Percy K., Pregitzer K., Sober J. & Karnosky D.F. (2001) Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone. Environmental Pollution 115, 359371.
  • Karlsson P.E., Medin E.L., Wallin G., Selldén G. & Skärby L. (1997) Effects of ozone and drought stress on the growth of two clones of Norway spruce (Picea abies). New Phytologist 136, 265275.
  • Karnosky D.F., Mankovska B., Percy K., et al. (1999) Effects of tropospheric ozone on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: results from an O3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 116, 311322.
  • Karnosky D.F., Pregitzer K.S., Zak D.R., Kubiske M.E., Hendrey G.R., Weinstein D., Nosal M. & Percy K.E. (2005) Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate. Plant, Cell & Environment 28, 965981.
  • Kasana M.S. & Mansfield T.A. (1986) Effects of air pollutants on the growth and functioning of roots. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (Plant Sciences) 96, 429441.
  • Kerstiens G. (2001) Meta-analysis of the interaction between shade-tolerance, light environment and growth response of woody species to elevated CO2. Acta Oecologica – International Journal of Ecologica 22, 6169.
  • Kleier C., Farnsworth B. & Winner W. (2001) Photosynthesis and biomass allocation of radish cv. ‘cherry belle’ in response to root temperature and ozone. Environmental Pollution 111, 127133.
  • Kostka-Rick R. & Manning W.J. (1992) Partitioning of biomass and carbohydrates in field-grown radish under ambient concentrations of ozone, and treated with the anti-ozonant ethylene–diurea (EDU). New Phytologist 121, 187200.
  • Koziol M.J. & Jordan C.F. (1978) Changes in carbohydrate levels in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to sulfur dioxide. Journal of Experimental Botany 29, 10371043.
  • Landolt W., Günthardt-Goerg M.S., Pfenninger I., Einig W., Hampp R., Maurer S. & Matyssek R. (1997) Effect of fertilization on ozone-induced changes in the metabolism of birch (Betula pendula) leaves. New Phytologist 137, 389397.
  • Landolt W., Bühlmann U., Bleuler P. & Bucher J.B. (2000) Ozone exposure–response relationships for biomass and root/shoot ratio of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Environmental Pollution 109, 473478.
  • Laurence J.A., Amundson R.G., Friend A.L., Pell E.J. & Temple P.J. (1994) Allocation of carbon in plants under stress – an analysis of the ROPIS experiments. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 412417.
  • Laurence J.A., Kohut R.J., Amundson R.G., Weinstein D.A. & MacLean D.C. (1996) Response of sugar maple to ozone and simulated acid precipitation. Environmental Pollution 92, 119126.
  • Lee E.H. & Bennett J.H. (1982) Superoxide dismutase: a possible protective enzyme against ozone injury in snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Physiology 69, 14441449.
  • Lefohn A.S. (1992) Surface Level Ozone Exposures and Their Effects on Vegetation. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA.
  • Long S.P. & Naidu S.L. (2002) Effects of oxidants at the biochemical, cell and physiological levels. In Air Pollution and Plants (ed. M.Treshow), pp. 6988. John Wiley, London, England.
  • Lyons T.M. & Barnes J.D. (1998) Influence of plant age on ozone resistance in Plantago major. New Phytologist 138, 8389.
  • Lyons T.M., Barnes J.D. & Davison A.W. (1997) Relationships between ozone resistance and climate in European populations of Plantago major. New Phytologist 136, 503510.
  • Manning W.J. & Krupa S.V. (1992) Experimental methodology for studying the effects of ozone on crops and trees. In Surface Level Ozone Exposures and Their Effects on Vegetation (ed. A.S.Lefohn), pp. 93156. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA.
  • Massman W.J. (2004) Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: a review of deposition resistances and a possible metric. Atmospheric Environment 38, 23232337.
  • McCrady J.K. & Anderson C.P. (2000) The effect of ozone on below-ground carbon allocation in wheat. Environmental Pollution 107, 465472.
  • McLaughlin S.B. & Shriner D.S. (1980) Allocation of resources to defense and repair. In Plant Disease (eds J.B.Horsfall & E.B. Cowling) Vol. 5, pp. 407431. Academic Press, New York, USA.
  • Medlyn B.E., Barton C.V.M., Broadmeadow M.S.J., et al. (2001) Stomatal conductance of forest species after long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration: a synthesis. New Phytologist 149, 247264.
  • Mehlhorn H., Seufert G., Schmit A. & Kunert K.J. (1986) Effect of SO2 and O3 on production of antioxidants in conifers. Plant Physiology 82, 336338.
  • Miller J.E. (1988) Effects on photosynthesis, carbon allocation and plant growth associated with air pollutant stress. In Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants (eds W.W.Heck, O.C.Taylor & D.T. Tingey), pp. 287314. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.
  • Miller  P. &  McBride  J.R. (1999)  Oxidant Air Pollution Impacts in the Montane Forests of Southern California: A Case Study of the San Bernardino Mountains. Ecological studies, Vol. 134. Springer, New York, USA.
  • Mills G. (2002) Modification of plant response by environmental conditions. In Air Pollution and Plant Life (eds J.N.B.Bell & M. Treshow) 2nd edn, pp. 343358. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.
  • Minchin P.E.H., Thorpe M.R. & Farrar J.F. (1993) A simple mechanistic model of phloem transport which explains sink priority. Journal of Experimental Botany 44, 947955.
  • Morgan P.B., Ainsworth E.A. & Long S.P. (2003) How does elevated ozone impact soybean? A meta-analysis of photosynthesis, growth and yield. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 13171328.
  • Mortensen L. & Engvild K.C. (1995) Effects of ozone on 14C translocation velocity and growth of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed in open-top chambers. Environmental Pollution 87, 135140.
  • Mulholland B.J., Craigon J., Black C.R., Colls J.J., Atherton J. & Landon G. (1997) Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on gas exchange and chlorophyll content in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 18531863.
  • Nie G.Y., Tomasevic M. & Baker N.R. (1993) Effects of ozone on the photosynthetic apparatus and leaf proteins during leaf development in wheat. Plant, Cell & Environment 16, 643651.
  • Van Noordwijk M., Martikainen P., Bottner P., Cuevas E., Rouland C. & Dhillion S.S. (1998) Global change and root function. Global Change Biology 4, 759772.
  • Ollerenshaw J.H., Lyons T. & Barnes J.D. (1999) Impacts of ozone on the growth and yield of field-grown winter oilseed rape. Environmental Pollution 104, 5359.
  • Olszyk D.M. & Wise C. (1997) Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on rice and flacca tomato. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 66, 110.
  • Olszyk D.M., Tibbitts T.W. & Hertzberg W.M. (1980) Environment in open-top field chambers utilized for air pollution studies. Journal of Environmental Quality 9, 610615.
  • Olszyk D.M., Bytnerowicz A., Kats G., Dawson P.J., Wolf J. & Thompson C.R. (1986) Crop effects from air pollutants in air exclusion systems vs. field chambers. Journal of Environmental Quality 15, 417422.
  • Olszyk D.M., Takemoto B.K., Kats G., Dawson P.J., Morrison C.L., Preston J.W. & Thompson C.R. (1992) Effects of open top chambers on ‘Valencia’ orange trees. Journal of Environmental Quality 21, 128134.
  • Oshima R.J., Bennett J.P. & Braegelmann P.K. (1978) Effect of ozone on growth and assimilate partitioning in parsley. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 103, 348350.
  • Pearson M. (1995) Effects of ozone on growth and gas exchange of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings. Tree Physiology 15, 207210.
  • Pell E.J., Eckardt N. & Enyedi A.J. (1992) Timing of ozone stress and resulting status of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and associated net photosynthesis. New Phytologist 120, 397405.
  • Pell E.J., Temple P.J., Friend A.L., Mooney H.A. & Winner W.E. (1994) Compensation as a plant response to ozone and associated stresses: an analysis of ROPIS experiments. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 429436.
  • Poorter H. & Nagel O. (2000) The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 595607.
  • Poorter H. & Van Der Werf A. (1998) Is inherent variation in RGR determined by LAR at low irradiance and by NAR at high irradiance? A review of herbaceous species. In Inherent Variation in Plant Growth Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences (eds H.Lambers, H.Poorter & M.M.I.Van Vuuren), pp. 309336. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  • Reiling K. & Davison A.W. (1992a) The response of native, herbaceous species to ozone: growth and fluorescence screening. New Phytologist 120, 2937.
  • Reiling K. & Davison A.W. (1992b) Spatial variation in ozone resistance of British populations of Plantago major L. New Phytologist 122, 699708.
  • Reiling K. & Davison A.W. (1994) Effects of exposure to ozone to different stages in the development of Plantago major L. on chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange. New Phytologist 128, 509514.
  • Reinert R.A. & Ho M.C. (1995) Vegetative growth of soybean as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Environmental Pollution 89, 8996.
  • Reinert R.A., Schafer S.R., Eason G., Schoeneberger M.M. & Horton S.J. (1996) Response of loblolly pine to ozone and simulated acidic rain. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26, 17151723.
  • Retzlaff W.A., Williams L.E. & DeJong T.M. (1992) Photosynthesis, growth, and yield response of ‘Casselman’ plum to various ozone partial pressures during orchard establishment. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 117, 703710.
  • Retzlaff W.A., Weinstein D.A., Laurence J.A. & Gollands B. (1997a) Simulating the growth of a 160 year old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27, 783789.
  • Retzlaff W.A., Williams L.E. & DeJong T.M. (1997b) Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age ‘Casselman’ plum trees to various ozone partial pressures. Journal of Environmental Quality 26, 858865.
  • Retzlaff W.A., Arthur M.A., Grulke N.E., Weinstein D.A. & Gollands B. (2000) Use of a single-tree simulation model to predict effects of ozone and drought on growth of a white fir tree. Tree Physiology 20, 195202.
  • Rosenberg M.S., Adams D.C. & Gurevitch J. (2000) MetaWin: Statistical Software for Meta-analysis, Vol. 2. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
  • Sandermann H. Jr. (1996) Ozone and plant health. Annual Review of Phytopathology 34, 347366.
  • Sharma Y.K. & Davis R.K. (1994) Ozone-induced expression of stress-related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology 105, 10891096.
  • Showman R.E. (1991) A comparison of ozone injury to vegetation during moist and drought years. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 41, 6364.
  • Soja G. & Soja A.-M. (1995) Ozone effects on dry matter partitioning and chlorophyll fluorescence during plant development of wheat. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 85, 14611466.
  • Spence R.D., Rykeil E.J. & Sharpe P.J.H. (1990) Ozone alters allocation in loblolly pine: assessment with carbon-11 labeling. Environmental Pollution 64, 93106.
  • Stevenson D.S., Johnson C.E., Collins W.J., Derwent R.G. & Edwards J.M. (2000) Future estimates of tropospheric ozone radiative forcing and methane turnover – the impact of climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 27, 20732076.
  • Taylor G.E. Jr. (1994) Role of genotype in the response of loblolly pine to tropospheric ozone: effects at the whole-tree, stand, and regional level. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 6382.
  • Taylor G. & Davies W.J. (1990) Root growth of Fagus sylvatica: impact of air quality and drought at a site in Southern Britain. New Phytologist 116, 457464.
  • Taylor G.E. Jr, Norby R.J., McLaughlin S.B., Johnson A.H. & Turner R.S. (1986) Carbon dioxide assimilation and growth of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings in response to ozone, precipitation chemistry, and soil type. Oecologia 70, 163171.
  • Taylor G.E. Jr, Pitelka L.F. & Clegg M.T. (1991) Ecological Genetics and Air Pollution. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
  • Thompson A.M. (1992) The oxidizing capacity of the earth’s atmosphere: probable past and future changes. Science 256, 11571165.
  • Thorpe M.R., Walsh K.B. & Minchin P.E.H. (1998) Photoassimilate partitioning in nodulated soybean. I. 11C methodology. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 18051815.
  • Tilman D. (1988) Plant Strategies and the Dynamics and Structure of Plant Communities. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  • Tjoelker M.G., Volin J.C., Oleksyn J. & Reich P.B. (1995) Interaction of ozone pollution and light effects on photosynthesis in a forest canopy experiment. Plant, Cell & Environment 18, 895905.
  • Troughton A. (1955) The application of the allometric formula to the study of the relationship between roots and shoots. Agricultural Progress 30, 5965.
  • Unsworth M.H., Heagle A.S. & Heck W.W. (1984a) Gas exchange in open-top field chambers. I. Measurement and analysis of atmospheric resistances to gas exchange. Atmospheric Environment 18, 373380.
  • Unsworth M.H., Heagle A.S. & Heck W.W. (1984b) Gas exchange in open-top field chambers. II. Resistances to ozone uptake by soybeans. Atmospheric Environment 18, 381385.
  • Van Oijen M., Schapendonk A.H.C.M., Jansen M.J.H., Pot C.S. & Maciorowski R. (1999) Do open-top chambers overestimate the effects of rising CO2 on plants? An analysis using spring wheat. Global Change Biology 5, 411421.
  • Waltz E. (2006) Understanding confidence intervals. State University of New York at Albany; School of Public Health. URL http://www.albany.edu/sph/data/confidence_intervals.pdf[accessed on 14 February 2006].
  • Wand S.J.E., Midgley G.F., Jones M.H. & Curtis P.S. (1999) Responses of wild C4 and C3 grass (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta-analytic test of current theories and perceptions. Global Change Biology 5, 723741.
  • Wang X.Z. & Curtis P. (2002) A meta-analytical test of elevated CO2 effects on plant respiration. Plant Ecology 161, 251261.
  • Wang D., Karnosky D.F. & Bormann F.H. (1986) Effects of ambient ozone on the productivity of Populus tremuloides Michx. grown under field conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16, 4755.
  • Wardlaw I.F. (1968) The control and pattern of movement of carbohydrates in plants. Botanical Review 34, 79105.
  • Warwick K.R. & Taylor G. (1995) Contrasting effects of tropospheric ozone on five native herbs which coexist in calcareous grassland. Global Change Biology 1, 143151.
  • Whitfield C.P., Davison A.W. & Ashenden T.W. (1996) Interactive effects of ozone and soil volume on Plantago major. New Phytologist 134, 287294.
  • Wiese C.B. & Pell E.J. (1997) Influence of ozone on transgenic tobacco plants expressing reduced quantities of Rubisco. Plant, Cell & Environment 20, 12831291.
  • Wittig V., Shawna N., Karnosky D. & Long S. (2005) A meta-analysis of elevated tropospheric O3 effects on tree physiology and biomass accumulation. Abstracts, 90th Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America, Montreal, Canada, 8 August 2005.
  • Zheng Y., Lyons T. & Barnes J. (2000) Effects of ozone on the production and utilization of assimilates in Plantago major. Environmental and Experimental Botany 43, 171180.