SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Arabidopsis;
  • chilling;
  • expression arrays;
  • metabolite profile

ABSTRACT

This paper characterizes the transcriptional and metabolic response of a chilling-tolerant species to an increasingly large decrease of the temperature. Arabidopsis Col-0 was grown at 20 °C and transferred to 17, 14, 12, 10 or 8 °C for 6 and 78 h, before harvesting the rosette and profiling >22 000 transcripts, >20 enzyme activities and >80 metabolites. Most parameters showed a qualitatively similar response across the entire temperature range, with the amplitude increasing as the temperature decreased. Transcripts typically showed large changes after 6 h, which were often damped by 78 h. Genes were induced for sucrose, proline, raffinose, tocopherol and polyamine synthesis, phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolism, fermentation, non-phosphorylating mitochondrial electron transport, RNA processing, and protein synthesis, targeting and folding. Genes were repressed for carbonic anhydrases, vacuolar invertase, and ethylene and jasmonic acid signalling. While some enzyme activities and metabolites changed rapidly, most changed slowly. After 6 h, there was an accumulation of phosphorylated intermediates, a shift of partitioning towards sucrose, and a perturbation of glycine decarboxylation and nitrogen metabolism. By 78 h, there was an increase of the overall protein content and many enzyme activities, a general increase of carbohydrates, organic and amino acids, and an increase of many stress-responsive metabolites including raffinose, proline, tocopherol and polyamines. When the responses of transcripts and metabolism were compared, there was little agreement after 6 h, but considerable agreement after 78 h. Comparison with the published studies indicated that much, but not all, of the response was orchestrated by the CBF programme. Overall, our results showed that transcription and metabolism responded in a continuous manner across a wide range of temperatures. The general increase of enzyme activities and metabolites emphasized the positive and compensatory nature of this response.