Deep water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) are important processes in many forests, savannas and shrublands. We investigated HR in a semi-arid woodland above a unique cave system in central Texas to understand how deep root systems facilitate HR. Sap flow was measured in 9 trunks, 47 shallow roots and 12 deep roots of Quercus, Bumelia and Prosopis trees over 12 months. HR was extensive and continuous, involving every tree and 83% of roots, with the total daily volume of HR over a 1 month period estimated to be approximately 22% of daily transpiration. During drought, deep roots at 20 m depth redistributed water to shallow roots (hydraulic lift), while after rain, shallow roots at 0–0.5 m depth redistributed water among other shallow roots (lateral HR). The main driver of HR appeared to be patchy, dry soil near the surface, although water may also have been redistributed to mid-level depths via deeper lateral roots. Deep roots contributed up to five times more water to transpiration and HR than shallow roots during drought but dramatically reduced their contribution after rain. Our results suggest that deep-rooted plants are important drivers of water cycling in dry ecosystems and that HR can significantly influence landscape hydrology.