SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Björkman O. (1971) Comparative photosynthetic CO2 exchange in higher plants. In Photosynthesis and Photorespiration (eds M.D.Hatch, C.B.Osmond & R.O.Slatyer) pp. 1832. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, USA.
  • Bouchenak-Khelladi Y., Verboom A., Hodkinson T.R., Salamin N., Francois O., Ní Chonghaile G. & Savolainen V. (2009) The origins and diversification of C4 grasses and savanna-adapted ungulates. Global Change Biology 15, 23972417.
  • Boyer J.S., Wong S.C. & Farquhar G.D. (1997) CO2 and water vapor exchange across leaf cuticle (epidermis) at various water potentials. Plant Physiology 114, 185191.
  • Brodribb T. (1996) Dynamics of changing intercellular CO2 concentration (ci) during drought and determination of minimum functional ci. Plant Physiology 111, 179185.
  • Brown R.H. (1999) Agronomic implications of C4 photosynthesis. In C4 Plant Biology (eds R.F.Sage & R.K.Monson) pp. 473507. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • Cabido M., Pons E., Cantero J.J., Lewis J.P. & Anton A. (2008) Photosynthetic pathway variation among C4 grasses along a precipitation gradient in Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 35, 131140.
  • Campbell G.S. & Norman J.M. (1998) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics, 2nd edn. Springer, New York.
  • Christin P.A., Salamin N., Savolainen V., Duvall M.R. & Besnard G. (2007) C4 photosynthesis evolved in grasses via parallel adaptive genetic changes. Current Biology 17, 12411247.
  • Christin P.A., Besnard G., Samaritani E., Duvall M.R., Hodkinson T.R., Savolainen V. & Salamin N. (2008) Oligocene CO2 decline promoted C4 photosynthesis in grasses. Current Biology 18, 3743.
  • Christin P.A., Salamin N., Kellogg E.A., Vicentini A. & Besnard G. (2009) Integrating phylogeny into studies of C4 variation in the grasses. Plant Physiology 149, 8287.
  • Crawley M.J. (2007) The R Book. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK.
  • Downton W.J.S., Loveys B.R. & Grant W.J.R. (1988) Non-uniform stomatal closure induced by water stress causes putative non-stomatal inhibition of photosynthesis. New Phytologist 110, 503509.
  • Edwards E.J. & Smith S.A. (2010) Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady history of C4 grasses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 25322537.
  • Edwards E.J. & Still C.J. (2008) Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. Ecology Letters 11, 266276.
  • Edwards E.J., Still C.J. & Donoghue M.J. (2007) The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 243249.
  • Farquhar G.D. (1989) Models of integrated photosynthesis of cells and leaves. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 323, 357367.
  • Franks P.J., Drake P.L. & Froend R.H. (2007) Anisohydric but isohydrodynamic: seasonally constant plant water potential gradient explained by a stomatal control mechanism incorporating variable plant hydraulic conductance. Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 1930.
  • Gelman A. & Hill J. (2007) Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  • Ghannoum O. (2009) C4 photosynthesis and water stress. Annals of Botany 103, 635644.
  • Ghannoum O., Von Caemmerer S. & Conroy J.P. (2002) The effect of drought on plant water use efficiency of nine NAD-ME and nine NADP-ME Australian C4 grasses. Functional Plant Biology 29, 13371348.
  • HatchM.D., OsmondC.B. & SlatyerR.O. (eds) (1971) Photosynthesis and Photorespiration. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, USA.
  • Heaton E.A., Dohleman F.G. & Long S.P. (2008) Meeting US biofuel goals with less land: the potential of Miscanthus. Global Change Biology 14, 20002014.
  • Ibrahim D.G., Gilbert M.E., Ripley B.S. & Osborne C.P. (2008) Seasonal differences in photosynthesis between the C3 and C4 subspecies of Alloteropsis semialata are offset by frost and drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 31, 10381050.
  • Kocacinar F. & Sage R.F. (2003) Photosynthetic pathway alters xylem structure and hydraulic function in herbaceous plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 20152026.
  • Lauer M.J. & Boyer J.S. (1992) Internal CO2 measured directly in leaves : abscisic acid and low leaf water potential cause opposing effects. Plant Physiology 98, 13101316.
  • Lawlor D.W. & Cornic G. (2002) Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 25, 275294.
  • Long S.P. (1999) Environmental responses. In C4 Plant Biology (eds R.F.Sage & R.K.Monson) pp. 215249. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • Long S.P., Farage P.K., Bolhár-Nordenkampf H.R. & Rohrhofer U. (1989) Separating the contribution of the upper and lower mesophyll to photosynthesis in Zea mays L. leaves. Planta 177, 207216.
  • Markwell J., Osterman J. & Mitchell J. (1995) Calibration of the Minolta SPAD-502 leaf chlorophyll meter. Photosynthesis Research 46, 467472.
  • Metcalfe A.E. (1960) Anatomy of the Monocotyledons I. Gramineae. Oxford University Press, London, UK.
  • Oguro H., Hinata K. & Tsunoda S. (1985) Comparative anatomy and morphology of leaves between C3 and C4 species in Panicum. Annals of Botany 55, 859869.
  • Osborne C.P. & Freckleton R.P. (2009) Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 276, 17531760.
  • Osmond C.B., Winter K. & Ziegler H. (1982) Functional significance of different pathways of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology: New Series (eds O.L.Lange, P.S.Nobel, C.B.Osmond & H.Ziegler) pp. 479547. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Pearcy R.W. & Ehleringer J. (1984) Comparative ecophysiology of C3 and C4 plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 7, 113.
  • Pinheiro J., Bates D., DebRoy S., Sarkar D. & R Core Team (2009) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-96.
  • Porra R.J., Thompson W.A. & Kriedemann P.E. (1989) Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics 975, 384394.
  • R Development Core Team (2005) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Ripley B.S., Gilbert M.E., Ibrahim D.G. & Osborne C.P. (2007) Drought constraints on C4 photosynthesis: stomatal and metabolic limitations in C3 and C4 subspecies of Alloteropsis semialata. Journal of Experimental Botany 58, 13511363.
  • Ripley B., Frole K. & Gilbert M.E. (2010) Differences in drought sensitivities and photosynthetic limitations between co-occurring C3 and C4 (NADP-ME) Panicoid grasses. Annals of Botany 105, 493503.
  • Still C.J., Berry J.A., Collatz C.J. & DeFries R.S. (2003) Global distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation: carbon cycle implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17, 1006.
  • Taub D.R. (2000) Climate and the U.S. distribution of C4 grass subfamilies and decarboxylation variants of C4 photosynthesis. American Journal of Botany 87, 12111215.
  • Taylor S.H., Hulme S.P., Rees M., Ripley B.S., Woodward F.I. & Osborne C.P. (2010) Ecophysiological traits in C3 and C4 grasses: a phylogenetically controlled screening experiment. New Phytologist 185, 780791.
  • Terashima I. (1992) Anatomy of non-uniform leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research 31, 195212.
  • Terashima I., Wong S.-C., Osmond C.B. & Farquhar G.D. (1988) Characterisation of non-uniform photosynthesis induced by abscisic acid in leaves having different mesophyll anatomies. Plant and Cell Physiology 29, 385394.
  • Turner N.C. (1981) Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant and Soil 58, 339366.
  • Vicentini A., Barber J.C., Aliscioni S.S., Giussani L.M. & Kellogg E.A. (2008) The age of the grasses and clusters of origins of C4 photosynthesis. Global Change Biology 14, 29632977.
  • Warnes G.R., Bolker B., Lumley T. & Johnson R.C. (2009) gmodels: various R programming tools for model fitting. R package version 2.15.0. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gmodels.
  • Warton D. & Ormerod J. (2007) smatr: (Standardised) major axis estimation and testing routines. R package version 2.1. http://web.maths.unsw.edu.au/~dwarton.